Analysis the play Look back in anger by john Osborne.
Look back in anger play by john Osborne.
1_ Analysis this play by using ONE element or feature of modern age that reflected in this play. should be drama related to modern issues and could cover style, setting or modern movements such as the concept of Marxism. In relation to this poem. NOT enough to analysis the play without feature related in. (choose only one).
2_ have to state the thesis statement.
3_ have to use 4 references. 2 from the internet (sites).
the other 2 from book. and avoid to use those books that beyond our reach (( Please try to use books that can be available in the internet))
finally develop a critical essay on modern play.
our Doctor warn us from Plagiarism
Analysis the play Look back in anger by john Osborne.
1_Read the critical essay of Colleen BurkeJoseph Conradas Heart of Darkness A Metaphor of Jungian Psychology.
2_ Write the summary in a long essay form, arguing either for or against the position of the writer of the essay. develop a critical essay
. 3_ The essay should comprise an introduction (thesis statement), five or six developmental paragraphs, and a conclusion.
Joseph Conradas Heart of Darkness
A Metaphor of Jungian Psychology
Acknowledgment and Dedication
In 1961, Richard Verreault, who had been denied tenure as an English professor at a local university, joined the faculty of our ill-literatured -if not illiterate -high school and, with probing short story assignments, opened an unknown world to an unconscious sophomore. My imagin-ation danced in the pages of Joyce, Faulkner, and Steinbeck, but crashed into the unknown -and presumably unknowable -with our Heart of Darkness assignment.
We were to journey to the dark underworld of Conradas Congo and bring back an understanding of a?The Horror! The Horror!a? In spite of Mr. Verreaultas ever present encouragement and my Aas on most papers, I received only a B (it was actually a Bwith the minus crossed off) on the Heart of Darkness paper and I still feel, thirty-four years later, that I failed to answer the question posed by my literary psychopomp, Mr. Verreault. What does a fifteen year old (at least in rural, upstate New York in 1961) know about the darkly savage shadows of that deep interior place?
The moment we received our Mythological Studies assignment for Jungian Depth Psychology, I knew I would re-enter dark continent and, through my own untenured lenses, hopefully pay tribute to the memory of Richard Verreault -and perhaps to my own individuation journey.
As the Heart of Darkness snakes its way into the savage shadows of the African continent, Joseph Conrad exposes a psycho-geography of the collective unconscious in the entangling metaphoric realities of the serpentine Congo. Conradas novella descends into the unknowable darkness at the heart of Africa, taking its narrator, Marlow, on an underworld journey of individuation, a modern odyssey toward the center of the Self and the center of the Earth. Ego dissolves into soul as, in the interior, Marlow encounters his double in the powerful image of ivory-obsessed Kurtz, the dark shadow of European imperialism. The dark meditation is graced by personifications of anima in Kurtza black goddess, the savagely magnificent consort of the underworld, and in his porcelain -skinned Persephone, innocent intended of the upperworld. Though a?Dr. Jungas discoveries were not known to Conrad, a? (Hayes, 43) who wrote this master work between 1898 and 1899, Heart of Darkness presents a literary metaphor of Jungia n psychology.
This paper explores the dark territory of Conradas Heart of Darkness as metaphor for the Jungian concepts of the personal and the collective unconscious, as a journey of individuation, a meeting with the anima, an encounter with the shadow, and a descent into the mythic underworld. Like Conradas Marlow, who is propelled toward his African destiny despite ample warning and foreboding, I have been drawn beyond the classic analysis of the Heart of Darkness, embarking down an uncharted tributary, scouting parallels between Marlowas tale and Jungas own journeys to Africa, and seeking murky insight into the physical and the metaphorical impact of the dark continent on the language and the landscape of depth psychology.
a?Africa,a? wrote Graham Greene, a?will always be the Africa in the Victorian atlas, the blank unexplored continent in the shape of the human heart.a? The African heart described by Greene a?acquired a new layer of meaning when Conrad portrayed the Congo under King Leopold as the Heart of Darkness, a place where barbarism triumphs over humanity, nature over technology, biology over culture, id over super ego.(McLynn, ix).
The unknown and uncharted topography of the African continent first beckoned Conradas narrator, Marlow, into its depths in his boyhood: a?Now, when I was a little chap I had a passion for maps. I would look for hours at South America, or Africa, or Australia, and lose myself in all the glories of explorationa? (Conrad, 5). When Marlow was grown and Africa was no longer a blank space on the map, but rather a?a place of darkness,a? there was still one river there that drew him especially, a?a mighty big river, that you could see on the map, resembling an immense snake uncoiled, with its head in the sea, its body at rest curving afar over a vast country, and its tail lost in the depths of the landa? (Conrad, 5-6). This same deep place that had seduced Conradas ivory hunting Kurtz into the horrors of its savage embrace had, in 1890, lured Conrad himself into adventure that turned him from sailor to writer (Smith, 25) and severely effected his health for the rest of his life (Conrad,v). As the voyage up the Congo pro ved fateful for the development of Conradas narrator, Marlow, it was equally fateful for Conradas individuation, as he reflects in his letters a?Before the Congo I was just a mere animal.a? (Jean-Aubrey, 141)
Hillman, in a?Notes on White Supremacya? reminds us that, like Conrad, both Freud and Jung were called to venture into the shadowed continent and vestiges of their journeys still color our psychological language:
The convention informing geographical discoveries and the expansion of white consciousness over Africa continue to inform psychic geography. The topological language used by Freud for a?the unconsciousa? as a place below, different, timeless, primordial, libidinal and separated from the conscious-ness recapitulates what white reporters centuries earlier said about West Africa. From Conradas Heart of Darkness to van der Postas Venture to the Interior, Africa and the unconscious allegorize the other place…. a?Just donat stay in the topical colonies too long; you must reign at home,a? writes Freud in 1911 to Jung, who himself made the African journey fourteen years later, describing the vast lands and dark peoples he encountered in language he applies as well to the immemorial unconscious psyche…. Part of psychologyas myth is that the unconscious was a?discovereda? as its contents are a?exploreda? (45).
Thus Africa has become a topology of the mind -its location, its shape, its cultures, its textures, its rhythms, its foliage, its hues, its wildness -all calling forth something lost in the psychology of the white European. It is with an understanding of our destiny to explore that symbolic lost continent within ourselves that we can begin to appreciate the prescience of Jungian psychology in Conradas Heart of Darkness.
While the allegorizing of the African continent with the darkness of its instinctual, shadowed, primeval underworld establishes a revealing context for an examination of the Jungian concepts in the Heart of Darkness (the assignment which will be undertaken shortly), I am drawn first to explore an uncharted literary tributary, tracking the striking similarities between Jungas reflections on his trips to the dark continent (North Africa in 1920 and to Kenya and Uganda in 1925) and the tale told by Marlow in Heart of Darkness published in 1902. Jung himself in Memories, Dreams, Reflections concludes that his dreams while he was in Africa a?seemed to say that they considered … the African journey not as something real, but rather as a symptomatic or symbolic acta? (272) and it is this sense of the symbolic in Jungas travels to Africa that can be juxtaposed to the symbolic in Conradas Heart of Darkness. Jungas reflective entries on his African travels in Memories, Dreams, Reflections repeatedly echo Marlowas narrative on topics from the reason for setting forth in the first place to the expectations of inner change, from the experi