Ase study on an historical Civil Engineering failure

Aims
The aims of this coursework are:
i · To develop technical writing and literature search skills
i · To develop an understanding of the causes of a Civil Engineering failure
i · To identify lessons learnt from an historical failure and how they have influenced
engineering practice

Submission Requirements
You are required to submit a 1500 word essay that includes:
i · An overview of the chosen project and its context
i · A description of the failure event
i · A description of the investigations into the failure
i · A description of the main causes of the failure and the lessons learnt
Your essay can cover further points if you like and make comparison with other similar
projects. Essays that lie outside the range 1450-1550 words will incur a penalty.
The submission is due on February 8th and in two forms:
1) a hardcopy submitted with the appropriate cover to the General Office
2) an electronic copy submitted through WebCT (this will be checked for plagiarism)
Guidance on Preparing the Submission
Choice of Failure Event
You can choose any historical Civil Engineering failure, which could be either a physical
failure or a project failure. You can choose a project from any discipline in Civil
Engineering. Make sure that there is sufficient information available before you finalise
your choice. A list of examples is given overleaf.
Research on the Failure
Find out as much as you can about the failure. Research the background to the project
a why was it built and when. Try to find out what contributed to the failure a lack of
engineering knowledge, poor management decisions, extreme loading, change in use.
Was a public enquiry held? What was found? Did the failure lead to major research
studies? How has understanding that failure changed engineering practice? This is a
technical exercise so you should include technical details, figures, charts, photos as
appropriate.
Information Review
Once you have gathered information on the failure it is important to review it. Are there
contradictory explanations? Is someone being used as a scapegoat? Use the
information you have to prepare an outline structure for the essay. Identify where you
need further information, then go and find it.
Draft Essay
Prepare a draft of your essay, using notes to start with and then building them together
to form a coherent document. Do take account of tutoras comments on essay 1.
Final Version
Always review a draft document, preferably several days after writing it. Check the
content is appropriate and complete. Check the language is accurate. Check that you
have correctly cited references. Check that the length is within 1450-1550 words.
Effort

This submission is worth 15% of a 20 credit module. You therefore ought to aim to
spend ~30 hours working on the submission.
IMPORTANT
You must read the separate document on Essay Guidance before you start working
on the essays. You should be clear about the issue of plagiarism, how to reference
external sources and what to expect from your tutor.
28 November 2009
Assessment Guidelines
Essays will be assessed based on the following:
i · Use of technical English and library search skills
i · Understanding of the reasons for failure of the project
i · Appreciation of the context of the failure and its influence on engineering practice

Fail (<40%) A submission that does not satisfy all of the requirements for a satisfactory essay (below) will be awarded a mark in this range. Satisfactory (40-50%) a?Pub talka? A mark in this range will be awarded to an essay satisfying all the following criteria: i · The English is sufficient to communicate the intended meaning. It may contain errors but these do not obscure the meaning. Relevant information has been found from limited sources, which are properly referenced. i · The essay demonstrates some understanding of the main causes of failure, but this is limited, may contain some flaws and will be expressed in lay terms. i · The essay demonstrates some appreciation of the failureas influence on engineering practice, but this may be superficial or poorly understood. Good (50-60%) a?BBC Newsa? A mark in this range will be awarded to an essay that in addition to the above criteria satisfies the following: i · There is a clear and helpful structure with few English language errors; technical terms are used accurately and precisely. Information has been selected from multiple sources that are properly referenced. i · The failure is explained in technical terms that are generally accurate. i · The influence of the failure on engineering practise is clearly described with some reference to other projects and/or codes of practice. Very Good (60-70%) a?NCEa? A mark in this range will be awarded to an essay that in addition to the above criteria satisfies the following: i · There is a clear logical development of an argument/point of view with no English language errors. i · The failure is accurately explained in technical terms with evidence from appropriate sources. Competing explanations are compared. i · The influence of the failure on engineering practise is well understood with accurate and detailed reference to other projects and/or codes of practice. Excellent (>70%) a?ICE Civil Engineeringa?
A mark in this range will be awarded to an essay that in addition to the above criteria
demonstrates that the student has exceeded the main requirements of the brief.
Examples of evidence include:
i · A depth and clarity of understanding that shows wider reading and independent
thinking.
i · Using a range of different types of evidence to explain the failure, e.g. accurate
use of equations, charts, photos etc. to make rather than simply illustrate points.
i · Appropriate critical comment of the engineers involved and even subsequent
engineering practice.
These are simply examples and are not intended to be either prescriptive or exhaustive.
Clearly there is only limited scope for demonstrating this within the 1500 word limit and
this will be recognised in the marking.

Ase study on an historical Civil Engineering failure

I would like you to write the essay about Leaning tower of pisa.

Aims
The aims of this coursework are:
i · To develop technical writing and literature search skills
i · To develop an understanding of the causes of a Civil Engineering failure
i · To identify lessons learnt from an historical failure and how they have influenced
engineering practice

Submission Requirements
You are required to submit a 1500 word essay that includes:
i · An overview of the chosen project and its context
i · A description of the failure event
i · A description of the investigations into the failure
i · A description of the main causes of the failure and the lessons learnt
Your essay can cover further points if you like and make comparison with other similar
projects. Essays that lie outside the range 1450-1550 words will incur a penalty.
The submission is due on February 8
th
and in two forms:
1) a hardcopy submitted with the appropriate cover to the General Office
2) an electronic copy submitted through WebCT (this will be checked for plagiarism)

Guidance on Preparing the Submission
Choice of Failure Event
You can choose any historical Civil Engineering failure, which could be either a physical
failure or a project failure. You can choose a project from any discipline in Civil
Engineering. Make sure that there is sufficient information available before you finalise
your choice. A list of examples is given overleaf.
Research on the Failure
Find out as much as you can about the failure. Research the background to the project
a why was it built and when. Try to find out what contributed to the failure a lack of
engineering knowledge, poor management decisions, extreme loading, change in use.
Was a public enquiry held? What was found? Did the failure lead to major research
studies? How has understanding that failure changed engineering practice? This is a
technical exercise so you should include technical details, figures, charts, photos as
appropriate.
Information Review
Once you have gathered information on the failure it is important to review it. Are there
contradictory explanations? Is someone being used as a scapegoat? Use the
information you have to prepare an outline structure for the essay. Identify where you
need further information, then go and find it.
Draft Essay
Prepare a draft of your essay, using notes to start with and then building them together
to form a coherent document. Do take account of tutoras comments on essay 1.
Final Version
Always review a draft document, preferably several days after writing it. Check the
content is appropriate and complete. Check the language is accurate. Check that you
have correctly cited references. Check that the length is within 1450-1550 words.
Effort
This submission is worth 15% of a 20 credit module. You therefore ought to aim to
spend ~30 hours working on the submission.
IMPORTANT
You must read the separate document on Essay Guidance before you start working
on the essays. You should be clear about the issue of plagiarism, how to reference
external sources and what to expect from your tutor. 28 November 2009
Assessment Guidelines
Essays will be assessed based on the following:
i · Use of technical English and library search skills
i · Understanding of the reasons for failure of the project
i · Appreciation of the context of the failure and its influence on engineering practice
Fail (<40%) A submission that does not satisfy all of the requirements for a satisfactory essay (below) will be awarded a mark in this range. Satisfactory (40-50%) a?Pub talka? A mark in this range will be awarded to an essay satisfying all the following criteria: i · The English is sufficient to communicate the intended meaning. It may contain errors but these do not obscure the meaning. Relevant information has been found from limited sources, which are properly referenced. i · The essay demonstrates some understanding of the main causes of failure, but this is limited, may contain some flaws and will be expressed in lay terms. i · The essay demonstrates some appreciation of the failureas influence on engineering practice, but this may be superficial or poorly understood. Good (50-60%) a?BBC Newsa? A mark in this range will be awarded to an essay that in addition to the above criteria satisfies the following: i · There is a clear and helpful structure with few English language errors; technical terms are used accurately and precisely. Information has been selected from multiple sources that are properly referenced. i · The failure is explained in technical terms that are generally accurate. i · The influence of the failure on engineering practise is clearly described with some reference to other projects and/or codes of practice. Very Good (60-70%) a?NCEa? A mark in this range will be awarded to an essay that in addition to the above criteria satisfies the following: i · There is a clear logical development of an argument/point of view with no English language errors. i · The failure is accurately explained in technical terms with evidence from appropriate sources. Competing explanations are compared. i · The influence of the failure on engineering practise is well understood with accurate and detailed reference to other projects and/or codes of practice. Excellent (>70%) a?ICE Civil Engineeringa?
A mark in this range will be awarded to an essay that in addition to the above criteria
demonstrates that the student has exceeded the main requirements of the brief.
Examples of evidence include:
i · A depth and clarity of understanding that shows wider reading and independent
thinking.
i · Using a range of different types of evidence to explain the failure, e.g. accurate
use of equations, charts, photos etc. to make rather than simply illustrate points.
i · Appropriate critical comment of the engineers involved and even subsequent
engineering practice.
These are simply examples and are not intended to be either prescriptive or exhaustive.
Clearly there is only limited scope for demonstrating this within the 1500 word limit and
this will be recognised in the marking.