Ave the policy tensions between free trade and environmental protection been adequately resolved?

Module: Advanced Issues in International Commercial Law
Length: not more than 17 pages, excluding bibliography, formatted in accordance with the School of Lawas Assessed Work Rules
Presentation Style
a? It is typed (unless there is a particular reason for not typing a paper
a in which case you should address this to your personal or subject
tutor BEFORE submitting your work).
a? A margin of at least 2 cm must be used at the top and bottom of
the page and 2.5 cm on the right and left sides of the page.
a? All pages are numbered consecutively throughout.
a? It is printed in 12 font size and Times New Roman style which
is easily legible a any other point size or font is NOT acceptable.
Ensure that you read the a?Assessed Work Rulesa in the
School of Law Guide 2009/10 (Section C).
a? The text is 1A? or double-spaced including indented quotations a
single-spaced text is NOT acceptable.
a? Bold/italic/underlining is limited to case names, book titles and
legislation. Colour ink should NOT be used.
a? Quotations of longer than 3 lines are indented in the text. Shorter
quotations are not indented but should be set off with quotation
marks. (All quotations MUST BE attributed to their author.)

References & Footnotes
There are two principal systems of referencing: the Harvard System of Citation and
the Footnote Citation Style. The Footnote Citation Style relies extensively on the
use of footnotes for all citation material and is usually more acceptable practice for
legal writing which references cases and legislation. In the Harvard system
footnotes are used infrequently and, then, for tangential discussion or clarification
and NOT generally for citing sources. Thus, this system is more amenable to
papers which donat cite a lot of jurisprudence or legislation, but is far more useful
for papers which cite mainly books and articles. Thus, it is recommended that you
use the Footnote Citation Style for all work submitted for your law course and it is
this system which is demonstrated below.
In accordance with the Schoolas rules on the submission of work, footnotes MUST
be included within the specified page allowance for work submitted and should be
no smaller than 10 point font. Each note must begin on a new line. Further
information on the submission of work is available in the Law School Guide and
Handbook.
Footnote Citation Style
In this system all citations are referenced using full footnotes (and subsequent
abbreviations). When a citation is required, a footnote number is inserted in the text
(AFTER punctuation such as full stops and quotation marks) and the reference is
placed in a footnote at the bottom of the page (all contemporary word processing
software now has this capacity). Letas take a look at a couple of examples:

Example 1:
A recent study showed that these beliefs are faulty.1 In fact, recidivism
is a foregonea¦
___________________(at the bottom of the page)
1
Smith, T. (1994) Criminalizing Corporate Actors, London:
Blackwell. But compare: Jones, M. and K. Wells (2000)
Acting With Intent, Toronto: Rule Press.

Example 2:
Smith calls this a?the most significant development of recent years.a?2
His view, however, is not shared by Brown who states
Many other writers in this area have suggested that this
is of immense significance. This is not entirely borne
out by the facts, and indeed it is quite possible to
interpret the situation in a different manner, which far
from attributing immense importance to it would
suggest it is of minor impact. 3
___________________(at the bottom of the page)
2
Smith, T. (1994) Criminalizing Corporate Actors, London:
Blackwell, pg. 7.
3
Brown, J. (2002) Economic Dimensions of Law, Chicago: Univ.
of Chicago Press, pp. 22-8.
The information in the footnotes resembles that in the bibliography but has a
slightly different format (we discuss bibliographies below). The role of footnotes is
to provide quick, clear evidence of exactly where the information you use in your
text comes from (this means a pinpoint citation to the page/pages or
paragraph/paragraphs as well as information about the source). To be concise, you
will note that footnotes tend to contain abbreviations (unlike bibliographies which
are more complete records of information used) and various (usually Latin)
expressions are also used to help avoid the repetition of full citations (see
a?Appendix 5a? of this Guide for further examples of these expressions).
A Summary of Citation Rules
Cases
There is a hierarchy of reports and you should always cite the most official report
available. The hierarchy is: the Official Reports (A.C., Q.B., Ch.D., Fam.), the
Weekly Law Reports, the All England Reports, other series e.g. the Criminal Appeal
Reports. The reason for the hierarchy is that the official reports have, by the time
they appear, been scrutinised and authorised by the judges. When they are in the Weekly Law Reports they have not yet been authorised. The All England Reports
are a commercial enterprise; however, it is now claimed by the editors that they are
also checked by the judges.
Cases must be cited accurately and in conventional form: date, proper abbreviation
of report and page number. More detail may also be needed. For example, an
incidental reference in your text to:
the decision in Shaw v DPP2
will be cited adequately in the footnotes as:
2
[1962] AC 220 [hereinafter Shaw].
but a direct quotation or a reference to a particular part of a source:
a?I cannot accept the suggestion that because a rule is long established
only legislation can change ita? per Lord Wilberforce in Miliangos v George
Frank (Textiles) Ltd4
requires a pinpoint citation to the exact place in the source where this reference or
quote may be found:
[1976] AC 443 at 469 [hereinafter Milangos].
There are few things more exasperating for an examiner than having to search
through a long judgment for an alleged expression of judicial opinion that does not
seem quite accurate.
Once you have given the full citation of a case, you need not repeat it in full later in
the essay as long as you provide an adequate cross-reference to the original citation
and have noted how you will be referring to the case in future references (i.e. using
[hereinafter Abbreviation]).

In quoting authorities (whether judgments, periodicals, statutes, etc.) you must
always indicate where you have omitted from or added to the quotation. Omissions
are represented by a row of three dots, called an ellipsis (you should use four when
words omitted are at end of the sentence with a space between the third and fourth
dots). Words inserted into a quotation must be placed in square brackets, as must
alterations in grammar (this notifies the reader that you have changed the original
text. And, finally, where words from a quotation are misspelt or ungrammatical or
seem strange, the word sic (Latin for a?thusa?) may be inserted after them.
Books and Journals
Normally, a periodical will indicate on the first page or the title page how it is to be
cited as there is no standard UK citation style for journals. However, for the
purposes of work submitted during your law degree, you should stick to a
consistent style (e.g. the one given in the examples below): titles of articles within
inverted commas and the title of the journal italicized. Articles or chapters of a
book or collection will be cited in a similar fashion to periodical articles (see below
for examples).
The titles of books cited should be in italics (or underlined when writing by hand)
and the title of articles in books or in periodicals should be in inverted commas.
References to books should contain full bibliographical details (and a pinpoint
reference if required):
Box, S. (1983) Power, Crime and Mystification, London: Tavistock
Publications.
Once you have a full