Comparative systematic review of worldwide-published research comparing the incidences of psychoses in urban and rural geographical regions

This is a specific type of dissertation referred to as a Comparative Systematic Review”, thus, do you have an understanding of this type of dissertation? If so there are numerous considerations, which must be taken into account. I am due to attend a workshop for specifics on the 12th of April. I suspect that I ll be receiving information, which I can forward once in hand.

A comparative systematic review of worldwide-published research comparing the incidences of psychoses in urban and rural geographical regions

1. What is your research question (if appropriate)?
Are psychoses more common among those raised in urban regions compared to rural regions?

2. What are the aims and/or objectives of your research?
Currently we have learned to render psychoses a relatively benign disorder by implementing antipsychotic and other psychotropic medications, as well as psychotherapeutic interventions. However society seems to struggle expending any effort to support even marginally functional psychotics during difficult episodes both privately for the patient and culturally when their society is struggling. Also various cultures cannot find a way to assimilate them significantly into a community life resulting in blaming the disastrous results of the disorder on the terrible character of the illness rather than on our inability to make available the help needed. The issue of urban and rural diagnostic results reflects these issues, which patients encounter. Therefore this systematic literature reviews objective is to systematise the knowledge base and provide directions for future research to enlighten public understanding of how to cope with psychoses instead of stigmatisation, which has been the social and psychiatric custom.

3. Provide a brief outline of the research problem
For centuries, it has been debated that the inordinateness of psychoses found in geographically urban areas (including city centres) is the consequence of social drift. Social drift is described as the resettlement of the populace suffering from various psychoses to the urban areas from outlying or rural geographical regions. The term psychosis includes disorders such as schizophrenia, Schizoaffective and Schizophreniform disorders, affective disorders where psychosis is present (e.g. in depression, mania, bipolar affective disorder) and delusional disorders). More recent research has shown, however, that there is an increased risk of psychosis within individuals born into urban rather than rural areas. What is the causal agency for the increased risk of psychosis? Is this due to increased rates of difficult births or obstetric complications, sunlight deprivation, environmental disturbances, ozone depletion or excesses of toxins? Or, is there some other factor yet to be studied? An explanation of this phenomenon would contribute to our understanding of the causes of psychoses.

4. Provide a brief outline of the selected methodology and/or methods
The databases I will be searching for this systematic literature review will primarily be journals and grey literature that include stand alone, networked and online databases. The reasoning for grey literature is to include government documents such as WHO (World Health Organization). For example WHO conducted a comparison study between industrial and third world countries (now referred to as LDC or lesser developed countries). The electronic databases will include but not limited to the Cochrane Library, Questia, Medline, and CINAHL as well as benchmark texts. The research that will be included in this systematic literature review must reflect standardised methods of diagnoses and statistical measures to ensure scientific rigour. To phenomenologically search for the aetiology and epidemiology of these disorders it must include worldwide studies. People having greater or lesser degrees of vulnerability to these types of disorders, which are activated by more or fewer measures of stressful effects endured. In several cultures perceiving voices and visions, which others do not, is viewed as a sacred endowment, a duty with obligations rather than symptoms of mental disorders. Also, urban and rural stresses vary culturally too. Hence culturally diverse research is necessary due to the divergent perceptions of what rural and urban living implies as well as what these illness represent in order to see how one may affect the other in diagnoses and treatment medically and culturally. Thus, electronic searches for such material will be as important physical searches. Generally systematic literature reviews have two researchers to enhance reliability. This is not possible within this dissertation s requirements. Publication bias could also be an issue, which does not give rise to a fair and broad variation of studies lowering the validity of the research. Hence it has been found throughout systematic reviews that it is critical to search out relevant material, which will entail examining various search terminologies. The exact search protocol is dependent at the moment in the volumes that are found. Over the years many researchers employ the use of  methodological filters . However studies reveal employment of methodological filters may result in omissions of relevant studies, which should be included, hence it is preferable not to use them. Therefore to ensure as appropriate material has been reviewed the search terms will widely vary using no language restrictions. For example, terms such as,  psychosis, psychoses, schizophrenia, rural, urban, followed by further descriptors such as phenomenology, aetiology will be included. Articles will be included if one or more of the main research objectives are included The narrowing and revising of the search terms will be described in the review, including reasons for discarding and inclusion. For example, search term A yielded X number of relevant references to add to the veracity of the search method or was excluded due to lack of material retrieved. However, the literature search cannot commence until the protocols have been thought through and designed. It is noted that this stage may have numerous revisals until the process displays an in-depth review of appropriate material of as many views as possible for this research question. When the protocols have been created and validated for suitability, then the literature search can auspicate.

5. Provide a brief outline of any ethical issues
A systematic literature review requires morally ethical provisos to ensure the most estimable verification to support all practises and use of collected data. Every effort will be made to make a comprehensive search for such literature and any omissions will be unintended and hopefully avoided. The incorporation and omission of any and all material must be weighed and validated ethically.

6. Ethics approval will be sought from:

Not necessary

Recently upon acceptance of my research proposal, I received the following comments:



The team was agreed that this is an interesting and worthwhile project but would like to draw your attention to the following points:

1. The Team was slightly concerned about the lack of detail and clarity about the intended methodological approach. There will need to be considerably more information and clarity in the Dissertation. It was, however, noted that a systematic review workshop is planned and this should help to clarify a number of the important issues.

2. It was noted that you do not intend to include any language restriction on your literature searches. Could you please clarify how this is possible?


Further information with regard to this type of dissertation is found in the following information links I received:

Attached you will find some information that you might find useful if you are planning to undertake a systematic review. Most methods textbooks will also include a chapter.



You might also find the following links useful:


ac.uk/bandolier/band28/b28-3.html