Contemporary middle east history project 5

Write one response (at least 125 words) to each question with a reference.
Responses should be in your own words and include your own opinion informed by the assigned readings. Do not rely on popular (non-scholarly) or commercial on-line resources, such as Wikipedia, for their information. Your responses should make it clear where you got your information--assigned articles, chapters, web sites, etc. An easy way to incorporate your source into your response is to identify your source right in the response, e.g.,  Chapter #3 in Gelvin s textbook said& , which led me to think that& .
Gelvin, J.L. (2005). The modern middle east: a history. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516789-9

Khater, A.F. (Ed.) (2004). Sources in the history of the modern middle east. New York: Houghton-Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-98067-4
The Koran.(2004). (N.J. Dawood, Trans.).New York: Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-0449205
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84441-1
1. The Split
What caused Islam to split into two major sects? What are the fundamental differences between the two? What are the implications of this split for modern Islam?

2. Gunpowders
What factors brought about the end of Military-patronage statesand the rise of the Ottoman Turks and Safavids?

3. Ottomans & Safavids
What were the main features of the Ottoman and Safavid Empires? How were they similar and how were they different from the earlier  military-patronage states and from each other? Be specific.

4. Decline
Find some weaknesses in these two great Empires that would lead to their decline in the 18th century.

5. Crisis
What caused the 2 Middle Eastern gunpowder empires to fall into deep crisis in the 18th century. Were these problems limited to just the 2 Middle Eastern empires?

6. Modern World System
Discuss the  modern world system that developed in the 18th century, noting its main characteristics. Then, discuss why the two great Middle Eastern gunpowder empires fell so far behind Western Europe and ended up on the periphery of this new world order.

7.  The Eastern Question
Discuss the weakening of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century and how this weakening affected the foreign policies of the other European powers. Further discuss why the Middle East fell so far behind Europe.

8. The  Great Game
Discuss the  great game and, specifically, how and why Great Britain emerged as the dominant imperial power in the Middle East in the 19th century.

9. Defensive Developmentalism
Discuss your understanding of why defensive developmentalism, as practiced by the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and Persia, was unsuccessful? Could these three Middle Eastern nations have done anything different to make it work? Explain.

10. Nationalism
Did defensive developmentalism lead to the growth of nationalism in the region? Give examples to support your answer.

11. Imperialism
After reading Chapter 6 on the imperial ventures of the western powers in the region, discuss why the people there are so suspicious of westerners. What impact does this have on current U.S. policies in the region?

12. Westernization
During the Age of Imperialism, were there any significant influences left behind by Westerners that would have benefited the people of the region?

13. Wasif Jawhariyyeh
After reading the excerpts from Wasif s diary, discuss how he was exposed to new western ideas, yet retained the basics of Islam.

14. Pictures
After observing and examining the photographs in the textbook, discuss how western influences actually changed the physical appearance of Islam.

15. Fundamentalist
What were the main beliefs and ideas of such Muslim fundamentalists as the Wahhabis of Saudi Arabia? Discuss any possible impact these ideas might have on many people of the Middle East today.

16. Modernists
What were the main beliefs of such Muslim modernists such as Malkom Khan and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani? Again, discuss what impact these ideas might have on many people of the Middle East today.