Crime, criminology and modernity ( criminology)

Referencing & Bibliography
All essays must be fully and accurately referenced and must include, at the end, a bibliography of material consulted in the preparation of the essay. There are two well known systems of referencing which can be used for academic work. They are the Harvard System and the Notes system.


This takes the form of giving details of the author and date of publication in square brackets after the relevant place in the text, for example [Pugh:1994]. The full reference to this text is then given in the Bibliography. When citing specific arguments or using quotations the page number must also be given in the bracket: e.g. [Thompson: 1963, p.66]

NOTE: When using sources which themselves quote or paraphrase other pieces of work always cite the source that you have consulted, e.g. Bentham believed…. [Garland:1985, p.77] The source in the bracket should be listed in the Bibliography.
When constructing the Bibliography works should be listed by authorsa surnames in alphabetical order. When you have used two more works by the same author these should be listed by chronological order of publication. Where there are two or more works by one author in the same year they should be distinguished in the text and the bibliography by a letter [a,b,c…] thus [Tilly: 1977a], [Tilly:1977b].

Titles of books and journals should always be underlined and the date of publication given. For your purposes it is not necessary to give place of publication OR publisher.

Books should be cited in the following manner:
K.LAYBOURN, Britain on the Breadline, (1990)
J.STEVENSON & C.COOK, The Slump, (1977)

Articles in readers [i.e. edited collections] are cited as follows:-
G.FENNELL, a?The Second World War and the Welfare State in Britain: Sociological Interpretations of Historical Development,a? in L.JAMIESON & H.CORR, State, Private Life, and Political Change, (1990)

Articles in journals should be cited giving volume and issue number as well as date, for example:
J.TOMLINSON, a?Planning: Debate and Policy in the 1940s,a? Twentieth Century British History, V.3(2), 1992
Write a 2000 word essay on one of the following: ITS TOTATLY UP TO THE WRITER SHE/HE CAN CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING…

1)Criminology was subject to a process of radicalisation during the 1970as. What did this mean and how has it impacted on the subsequent development of the discipline?

2)Recent years have seen a shift in the focus of criminology and criminal justice towards crime prevention, victim responsibility and the minimization of risk. Why did this shift occur, what does it involve, and what consequences has it had for the discipline?

WRITTEN ESSAY SHOULD SHOW Excellent knowledge of the topic, with high level analysis of a balanced nature. Strong on critical evaluation, clarity, coherence AND THE FOLLOWING OBEJTIVES SHOULD BE COVERED.. Knowledge of the topic ideas, concepts and institutions
2. Analysis of issues and an awareness of different viewpoints
3. Evaluation of competing explanations or theories applied to a problem
4. Ability to identify relevant sources of evidence, both empirical and theoretical, and to use these to produce an informative referencing system
5. Skill in the presentation of an answer with accuracy, clarity and coherence.

NOTECAN YOU PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU ARE ANSWER THE WUESTION WITH RIGHT MATERIALS AND CONCENTRATE ON THE QUESTION RATHER THAN TALKING BOUT IRRELEVANCE THINGS.. essay should be well referenced and well written.. it will go through turnitin.. i will also upload lecture slides so u can have a little knowledge bout what the unit is about..