Discuss the advances in infertility treatment in the last 20 years. What do you think the next 20 years will bring?

Reprod Biomed Online. 2008 Apr;16(4):539-44. Development of artificial gametes Nagy ZP, Kerkis I, Chang CC.

First oocyte freezing Chen 1996 (slow freezing)
Using vitrification a say as successful as fresh eggs (Kuwayama et al, 2005, Antinori et al, 2007, Almodin et al, 2010, Rienzi et al, 2010)

Tao T, Del Valle A. (2008) Human oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and its application

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embryonic stem cells give rise to male gametes that
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Artificial Wombs:
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These might be helpful. On stem cells

in this essay question there are two parts. In each part 2 subjects are enough to write our supervisor said. So In the firt part which asks about fertility treatments in the first 20 years I want to talk about cryopreservation and vitrification/ freezing ovarian tissue-eggs/embryos

These are the lecture notes on vitrification which should be mentioned:

Process been around since 1985 (Rall and Fahey)
Fast cooling and warming
Can use for embryos and eggs
Amazing success rates a especially blastocysts and biopsied embryos

First oocyte freezing Chen 1996 (slow freezing)
Using vitrification a say as successful as fresh eggs (Kuwayama et al, 2005, Antinori et al, 2007, Almodin et al, 2010, Rienzi et al, 2010)

Freezing eggs . Why ?
Jennifer Anniston and Jeanette Jackson apparently have frozen eggs but they are quite old
Delaying motherhood
Beating evolution
No partner
Cancer treatment
Have to freeze eggs when young

Freezing Ovarian Tissue-Why ?
For cancer patients
Remove ovaries and freeze
Transplant back
Risk of transferring cancer?
Could do ovary transplants to someone else
Tao T, Del Valle A. (2008) Human oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and its application.

For the second part of the question which asks about future treatment I want to be written about generating artificial gametes from stem cells and about artificial wombs

These are the notes from lectures which are important:
Karim Nayernia Newcastle University fertilised mice with sperm derived from ESC in 2006 (6/7 pups survived but had health problems)

Then took male stem cells from bone marrow and formed spermatogonia

Now done the same thing using female stem cells

But now have to get spermatogonia to undergo meiosis

View that could fertilise egg with sperm made from a female so no need for male a lesbian couples
But what about imprinting??

Irina Kerkis, Sao Paolo claimed to make sperm and eggs from male mouse ES cells
Starting to take the work into humans

Also potential to use iPCs
Gay men could make eggs

Greg Aharonian is trying to patent artificial gametes from stem cells

Reprod Biomed Online. 2008 Apr;16(4):539-44. Development of artificial gametes Nagy ZP, Kerkis I, Chang CC.

The introduction should be 2 paragraphs long and there should be a conclusion. The conclusion should include your own ideas on promising future treatment and also some of the etchical issues/ideas on future treatments.

The essay should be minimum 3000maximum 3500 words excluding references.

Experimental evidences should be referenced.
In the essay for each new sections subheadings can be used.
In each paragraph there should be minimum 1 reference.
There should be 50-80 references in total