Discuss the advances in infertility treatment in the last 20 years. What do you think the next 20 years will bring?

Reprod Biomed Online. 2008 Apr;16(4):539-44. Development of artificial gametes Nagy ZP, Kerkis I, Chang CC.

First oocyte freezing Chen 1996 (slow freezing)
Using vitrification a say as successful as fresh eggs (Kuwayama et al, 2005, Antinori et al, 2007, Almodin et al, 2010, Rienzi et al, 2010)


Tao T, Del Valle A. (2008) Human oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and its application

Vitrification can be more favourable than slow cooling. Lilia L, kuleshova

Vitrification of oocytes and embryos od domestic animals. Gabor Vajta


Joseph Saragusty and Amir Arav. Current progress in oocyte and embryo cryopreservation by slow freezing and vitrification2011 Society for Reproduction and Fertility. (1741a 7899)

Thomas J. Kim & Seung Wook Hong. Successful live birth from vitrified oocytes after 5 years of cryopreservation. J Assist Reprod Genet (2011) 28:73a 76

Ana Cobo, Ph.D.,a and Cesar Diaz, M.D.b Clinical application of oocyte vitrification:
a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Fertility and Sterility Vol. 96, No. 2, August 2011

U.-B. Wennerholm1,9, V. SoA? derstroA? m-Anttila2, C. Bergh3,
K. AittomaA?ki4, J. Hazekamp5, K.-G. Nygren6, A. Selbing7, and A. Loft.Children born after cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes: a systematic review of outcome data.Human Reproduction, Vol.24, No.9 pp. 2158a 2172, 2009.


Development of artificial gametes. Dr Zsolt Peter Nagy. 2008 Published by reproductive Healthcare Ltd. (Symposium : Genetic and epigenetic aspects of assisted reproduction)

Zsolt Peter Nagy and Ching-Chien Chang. Artificial Gametes. Theriogenology 67 (2007) 99-104

An Artificial SpermNext year or never? Muhammad Lokman & Harry Moore . Human Fertility, December 2010, 13(4). 272-276

Heidi Mertes and Guido Pennings, Ethical Aspects of the use of Stem Cell Derived Gametes for Reproduction. Health Care Anal (2010) 18:267-278

Dr. Zsolt Peter Nagy. Current Advances in Artificial Gametes. Vol. 11. No 3, 2005 332-339 Reproductive Biomedicine Online.

Toyooka Y, Tsunekawa N, Akasu R et al. 2003 Embryonic stem cells
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A J Newson and A C Smajdor . Artificial Gametes. new paths to parenthood? January 3, 2012-Published by group.bmj.com

Geijsen N, Horoschak M, Kim K et al. 2004 Derivation of embryonic
germ cells and male gametes from embryonic stem cells. Nature
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Hubner K, Fuhrmann G, Christenson LK et al. 2003 Derivation of
oocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells. Science 300, 1251a
1256.

Lacham-Kaplan O, Daniels R, Trounson A 2001 Fertilization of mouse
oocytes using somatic cells as male germ cells. Reproductive
BioMedicine Online 2, 203a 209.

Nagy ZP, Chang CC 2007 Artificial gametes. Theriogenology 67,
99a 104.

Nagy ZP, Chang CC 2005 Current advances in artificial gametes.
Reproductive BioMedicine Online 11, 332a 339.

Nayernia K, Nolte J, Michelmann HW et al. 2006a In vitrodifferentiate
embryonic stem cells give rise to male gametes that
can generate offspring mice. Developmental Cell 11, 125a 132.

Nayernia K, Lee JH, Drusenheimer N et al. 2006b Derivation of male
germ cells from bone marrow stem cells. Laboratory Investigation
86, 654a 663.

Nayernia K, Li M, Jaroszynski L et al. 2004 Stem cell based
therapeutical approach of male infertility by teratocarcinoma
derived germ cells. Human Molecular Genetics 13, 1451a 1460



Artificial Wombs:
Lupton, M. L. 1997. Artificial wombs: medical miracle. Legal nightmare. Madicine and Law. 16(3): 621-633.



Bulletti, C., Jasonni, V. M., tabanelli, T., Gianaroli, L., Ciotti, P. M., Ferraretti, A. P. and Flamigni, C. 1988. Early human pregnancy in vitro utilizing an artificially perfused uterus. Fertility and Sterility. 49(6):991-6.

Bulleti, C., Palagiano, A., Pace, C., Cerni, A., Borini, A. and de Ziegler, D. 2011. The artificial womb. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.1221: 124-128.


Pak, S., Song, C., So, G., Jang, C., Lee, K. and Kim, J. 2002. Extrauterine incubation of fetal goats applying the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation via umbilical artery and vein. Journal of Korean Medical Sciences. 17: 663-8.


Greenspan, J. S., Fox, W. W., Rubenstein, D., Wolfson, M. R., Spinner, S. S. and Shaffer, T. H. 1997. Partial liquid ventilation in critically ill infants receiving extracorporeal life support. Pediatrics. 99(1).


Hammell, C., Forrest, M. and Barett, P. 2008. Clinical experience with a pumpless extracorporeal lung assist device. Anaesthesia. 63: 1241a 1244


These might be helpful. On stem cells


nih.gov/pubmed/16222117
pubmed/16799565
pubmed/16179247
in this essay question there are two parts. In each part 2 subjects are enough to write our supervisor said. So In the firt part which asks about fertility treatments in the first 20 years I want to talk about cryopreservation and vitrification/ freezing ovarian tissue-eggs/embryos

These are the lecture notes on vitrification which should be mentioned:

Process been around since 1985 (Rall and Fahey)
Fast cooling and warming
Can use for embryos and eggs
Amazing success rates a especially blastocysts and biopsied embryos

First oocyte freezing Chen 1996 (slow freezing)
Using vitrification a say as successful as fresh eggs (Kuwayama et al, 2005, Antinori et al, 2007, Almodin et al, 2010, Rienzi et al, 2010)

Freezing eggs . Why ?
Jennifer Anniston and Jeanette Jackson apparently have frozen eggs but they are quite old
Why?
Delaying motherhood
Beating evolution
No partner
Cancer treatment
Have to freeze eggs when young

Freezing Ovarian Tissue-Why ?
For cancer patients
Remove ovaries and freeze
Transplant back
Risk of transferring cancer?
Could do ovary transplants to someone else
Tao T, Del Valle A. (2008) Human oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and its application.



For the second part of the question which asks about future treatment I want to be written about generating artificial gametes from stem cells and about artificial wombs

These are the notes from lectures which are important:
Karim Nayernia Newcastle University fertilised mice with sperm derived from ESC in 2006 (6/7 pups survived but had health problems)

Then took male stem cells from bone marrow and formed spermatogonia

Now done the same thing using female stem cells

But now have to get spermatogonia to undergo meiosis

View that could fertilise egg with sperm made from a female so no need for male a lesbian couples
But what about imprinting??

Irina Kerkis, Sao Paolo claimed to make sperm and eggs from male mouse ES cells
Starting to take the work into humans

Also potential to use iPCs
Gay men could make eggs

Greg Aharonian is trying to patent artificial gametes from stem cells

Reprod Biomed Online. 2008 Apr;16(4):539-44. Development of artificial gametes Nagy ZP, Kerkis I, Chang CC.



The introduction should be 2 paragraphs long and there should be a conclusion. The conclusion should include your own ideas on promising future treatment and also some of the etchical issues/ideas on future treatments.

The essay should be minimum 3000maximum 3500 words excluding references.

Experimental evidences should be referenced.
In the essay for each new sections subheadings can be used.
In each paragraph there should be minimum 1 reference.
There should be 50-80 references in total