Ealth inequalities: Lay perspectives, focusing on concepts of ethnic minorities, and the role of structural and agency approaches.

Navarro V. Race or class versus race and class: mortality differentials in the United States. Lancet. 1990;336:1238a 1240
Sheldon TA, Parker H. Race and ethnicity in health research. J Public Health Med. 1992;14: 104a 110.
Nazroo, J.Y. (1997a) The Health of Britainas Ethnic Minorities: Findings from a National Survey. London: Policy Studies Institute.
Karlsen, S. and Nazroo, J. Y. (2002), Agency and structure: the impact of ethnic identity and racism on the health of ethnic minority people. Sociology of Health & Illness, 24: 1a 20. doi: 10.1111/1467-9566.00001
Blaxter, M. (1997). Whose fault is it? Peopleas own conceptions of the reasons for health inequalities. Social Science & Medicine, 44(6), 747a 756.
Davidson R, Kitzinger J, Hunt K: The wealthy get healthy, the poor get poorly? Lay perceptions of health inequalities. Soc Sci Med 2006, 62:2171-82.
Macintyre S, McKay L, Ellaway A: Are rich people or poor people morelikely to be ill? Lay perceptions, by social class and neighbourhood, of inequalities in health. Soc Sci Med 2005, 60:313-317.
Popay J, Williams G: Public Health Research and lay knowledge. Soc Sci Med 1996, 42(5):759-768.
Lawton J: Lay experiences of health and illness: past research and future agendas. Sociol Health Illness 2003, 25:23-40.
Popay J,
Introduction
How do people in the general public from ethnic minorities themselves think about inequalities in health? This topic has rarely been investigated directly; instead research has been focused in the area of general lay ideas on health and illness. Much of the research has concentrated on quantitative survey data combined with qualitative research on attitudes to health in western industrialised societies on a population level. From a sociological perspective the matter of ethnic aspects in health has been relatively neglected. Everything we know about the ethnic patterning of health has derived from the work of epidemiology and public health; and although these disciplines have provided an impressive evidential base, they have been more concerned with specific clinical disease and less concerned with the social significance of their findings. The main concern of this paper is to examine how ethnic minority groups perceive inequalities of health, and the role of cultural and behavioural determinants of health and illness.
Literature Review
As I mentioned in the introduction, previous work on ethnic minority perception on health is rare. For my literature review I will focus on three sections of previous research.
Firstly, I will look at the relation between ethnic inequalities of health in relation to material disadvantages and low socio-economic positions in society. This section will provide an overview of recent research on racial differences in health, and the complex way in which ethnicity and socio-economic status combine to affect health inequalities. Secondary qualitative analysis of previous research concerning health inequalities and ethnic minorities will be included. The aim is to highlight the methods of measuring health in relation to socio-economic position focusing on the structural and agency approaches.
Secondly I want to focus on the sociology of ethnicity and its relation to health from a theoretical perspective. The theory of functionalism from Talcott Parsons on social aspects of health will be incorporated to underline structural and agency approaches in the sociology of health and illness research, and how this could perhaps lead to the cultivation of ethnic identity. This is important to draw on in order to get an insight into different ways in which people may define and think about health due to the means in which they perceive themselves in the social system.
Finally, I will outline the main arguments of lay conceptions of health in the academic literature. Emphasis will be placed on contrasting definitions from both medical and sociological concepts. The aim is to see how perceived health is valued in comparison with other aspects of daily life, which is important in the study of health beliefs. In addition I will examine risk taking behaviour methods of assessing the value or the priority placed on health.
Methodology
A very common conclusion in previous work is that social inequalities in health is not a topic which is prominent in lay dialogue, and ironically t

Ealth inequalities: Lay perspectives, focusing on concepts of ethnic minorities, and the role of structural and agency approaches.

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Marmot, M. G., Davey Smith, G., Stansfeld, S., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., White, I., Brunner, E., & Feeney, A. (1991). Health inequalities among British civil servants: The Whitehall II study. Lancet, 337, 1387a 1393.

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Saffron Karlsen and James Y. Nazroo (2002). Agency and structure: the impact of ethnic identity and racism on the health of ethnic minority people. Sociology of Health & Illness Vol. 24 No. 1 2002 ISSN 0141a 9889, pp. 1a 20

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Nazroo, J. and Karlsen, S. (in preparation) Patterns of identity among ethnic minority people: diversity and commonality. In Saggar, S., Thomson, K. and Heath, A. (eds) Social Change and Minority Ethnic Groups in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Karlsen S, Nazroo JY. Identity and structure: rethinking ethnic inequalities in health. In: Graham H, ed. Understanding Health Inequalities. Buckingham, England: Open University Press; 2000:38a 57.

Popay J, Thomas C, Williams G, Bennett S, Gatrell A, Bostock L: A proper place to live: health inequalities, agency and the normative dimensions of space. Soc Sci Med 2003, 57:55-69.


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Blaxter, M. (2000). Class, time and biography. In S. J. Williams, J. Gabe, & M. Calnan (Eds.), Health, medicine and society: key theories, future agendas (pp. 27a 50). London: Routledge.

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Popay J, Williams G: Public Health Research and lay knowledge. Soc Sci Med 1996, 42(5):759-768.

Popay J, Bennett S, Thomas C, Williams G, Gatrell A, Bostock L: Beyond a?beer, fags and chipsa? Exploring lay understandings of social inequalities in health. Sociol Health Illness 2003, 25(1):1-23.

Martin GP: aOrdinary people onlya: knowledge, representativeness, and the publics of public participation in healthcare. Sociol Health Illness 2008, 30(1):35-54.

Popay J, Thomas C, Williams G, Bennett S, Gatrell A, Bostock L: A proper place to live: health inequalities, agency and the normative dimensions of space. Soc Sci Med 2003, 57:55-69.

Macintyre S, McKay L, Ellaway A: Are rich people or poor people more likely to be ill? Lay perceptions, by social class and neighbourhood, of inequalities in health. Soc Sci Med 2005, 60:313-317.

Davidson R, Kitzinger J, Hunt K: The wealthy get healthy, the poor get poorly? Lay perceptions of health inequalities. Soc Sci Med 2006, 62:2171-82

Lawton J: Lay experiences of health and illness: past research and future agendas. Sociol Health Illness 2003, 25:23-40.

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Popay J, Williams G, Thomas C, Gatrell A: Theorising inequalities in health: the place of lay knowledge. Sociol Health Illness 1998, 20(5):619-644.
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Williams, G. H. (2003), The determinants of health: structure, context and agency. Sociol
i) be based on an project undertaken by the student, based on the research programme of the dissertation supervisor, the students initiative or the research programme of the work placement (for 4 a year FSN students) ;

ii) provide an academic framework within which that empirical work is evaluated;

iii) be an independent project with guidance and support from a supervisor

iv) demonstrate understanding in the selection and application of methods relevant to the research topic

Presentation

The dissertation must be between 10a000 and 12a000 words

Students must state at the end of the dissertation the total number of words (which should exclude the bibliography and any text contained within appendices). Dissertations normally comprise the following chapters:
a? Title Page a Your name, your degree, the title of the dissertation, year.
a? Contents Page a Lists the chapters of the dissertation
a? Abstract a A brief summation of the dissertation
a? Introduction a What is it about? What is your argument? How have you organised your dissertation?
a? Main chapters a This is where you build and present your argument, drawing upon appropriate academic sources and other materials to make your case. How these will be organised is something you can discuss and agree with your supervisor.
a? Conclusion a What have you been able to show in the dissertation? How have you answered the title question?
a? References: a complete list, properly and consistently set out, with all relevant details. All references cited in the text should be included here

Content
good grasp of the question and clearly focused on the question
thorough understanding of the issues and perspectives
evidence of thorough and independent reading

Approach
critical and thoughtful analysis and discussion of sources and arguments

Structure
logical and coherent

Style and presentation
fluent and clear