Ealth Needs assessment among Internally Displaced People in southern Darfur State

subject : health needs assessment and priority setting

this is the spirit and the content of my essay , what is required is :
1-critical analysis of the needs assessment model ( Rapid participation appraisal model)
2-how well will this model be delivered
3-how well was this model been used
4-what are the strengths weakness, weakness ,advantages and disadvantage of the model
5-please note the following essay was considered as a background to the above
please, delete, modify and add accordingly

Health Needs assessment among Internally Displaced People in southern Darfur State


Health needs assessment is a systematic approach to improving the population health by ensuring that health services are delivered efficiently and in a manner that reduces inequalities. Health needs are that can benefit from health care or from wider social and environmental changes (Wright, Williams and Wilkinson ,1998)
Health needs assessment involves epidemiological, qualitative and comparative methods to describe the health problems of a population, identify inequalities in health and access to service and determine priorities for the most effective use of the services (Wright, Williams and Wilkinson BMJ ,1998)
In this essay a health needs assessment for the troubled Darfur region in Sudan will be discussed.
The Darfur Region Crisis
Throughout the recent years Sudan has suffered some of the worst humanitarian crisis, which resulted in the displacement of thousands of citizens. Some of these humanitarian crisis were a direct result of civil wars which happened in Southern Sudan and lately in Darfur regions . The Darfur conflict is the most recent crisis in Sudan which has attracted the attention of the whole world. This conflict has been described by the UN as the worst humanitarian crisis in the world in 2003 (UN OFFICE OF THE RESIDENT & HUMANITARIAN COORDINATOR FOR THE SUDAN, 2004) (Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit ,2004) . Since the start of the conflict more than 2.1 million citizens in Darfur have been internally displaced. In 2008, The United Nations estimated that four millions Internally Displaced Persons (largest internally displaced person population in the world) were counted for in Darfur. Around 667,000 of this populations found themselves placed in Southern Darfur state (USAID Situation Report #15, Fiscal Year (FY) 2007). Southern Darfur state is located approximately 1,200 km to the west from Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan. It is a 137,807 square kilometer in area . It shares bordes with The Republic of Central Africa to the southwest. It also shares borders with Chad .There is one regional airport located in Nyala City. Nyala city is the capital city of the state to which many of the southern darfurian people Internally Displaced Persons(IDPs) fled to. Most of this population are camped in 142 settlements .Kalma , Kass, Al Salam and Muhajiria being the most crowded camps . High mortality and morbidity rates were reported by various agencies. Serious mortality indices were caused by serious malnutritional problems (Francesco Grandesso, Frances Sanderson, Jenneke Kruijt,; Ton Koene, Vincent Brown, 2004) (AIDS, malaria and other diseases cases in the State s refugee camps.
This deterioration in Southern Darfur health status explains the need for health needs assessment. Various agencies took the initiatives to coordinate a rapid plan of action to help with the situation. In addition to the service of ministry of health ,several NGOs and UN agencies have introduced some health support (USAID , 2008) .

The Size of the Problem and The rationale for needs assessment

The World health Organization (WHO) (WHO, 2005) has warned of dire health consequences for millions of people in Darfur. A significant increase in diseases and death is inevitable without a rapid response to the crisis.
 Death and diseases spiral upwards when there is inadequate food, unsafe water, improper sanitation and shelter widespread violence .lack of public health input like vaccinations and insufficient access to medical care. These are the realities of the current crisis in Darfur. Said WHO Director General Lee Jong-Wook.  The world must not stand by as conflict is compounded by rising rates of death that could be prevented through concerted action
The main priority is to save lives and ensure a continuous health support system is established to control current crisis and prevent future problems.
The deteriorating health problems have urged health officials to respond to the situation. The appropriate response would rely very much on identification of the problems in a scientific approach with figures and data. This will pave the way for a robust needs assessment. A trained health needs assessment team to identify the health problems in the internally displaced camps has been established .It is envisaged that a rapid conduction of assessment is launched in such time ,as short as possible, to enable health officials to respond and provide immediate help. The team response is expected to give a feedback about a) assessments of the health needs b) the current health status and priorities c) Visions on ways of possible intervention (Evelyan dooprtere ,Vincent Brown , 2006 )

Aims and objectives

The main objective is to save lives and provide immediate help. To do this an identification of the camps become familiar with the demographic profile of the area and the camps. The most useful practical step is to arrange for a field visit .This visit will allow a face to face meeting with health authorities ,local community leaders and service consumers. This field visit help come up with solid recommendation for the programme leaders to assist in selecting the most appropriate intervention methods (USAID, 2008 )
Beside the main objectives, other objectives to be met may start including initiating immunization campaigns ,ensure water supply and proper sanitation and to make sure that priority medical and surgical care is available when needed.
Another aim to achieve the current health needs is to prioritize and draw plans for intervention. Late objectives may include some preventive strategies. Health education campaign may start in parrarell. (UN Office Of The resident & Humanitarian coordinator For The Sudan , 2004)


Continuous evaluation of the program running from the start should continue .This include time factors priorities, logistics and resources. Documentations of all steps taken from the start is a necessary step to take for proper supervision and continuous evaluation and also for the sake of future experience and availability of recordable data. ( Evelyan dooprtere ,Vincent Brown , 2006 )


Prior to implementing the program ,background information will be collected about the crisis including it s historical events and t