Ealth Status in the United States and Contemporary Models of Health Care

a? Overview:
Health care accounts for nearly one-sixth of the U.S. gross domestic product. Our high national health care expenditures have not produced commensurate gains in the health of the people of this nation or in the quality of care Americans receive.
Chronic Disease: By the late 20th century and continuing into the 21st century, the major reason for mortality and morbidity in the United States and other industrialized countries has become chronic disease. In 2005, 133 million people, almost half of all Americans, had at least one chronic condition. This is expected to grow to almost 157 million by 2020. People with chronic conditions, particularly those with multiple chronic conditions, are among the heaviest users of health care services.
Womenas Health: Women make up just over 50% of the US population. The majority rate their health as very good or excellent but factors such as race/ethnicity, income, age and education significantly influence health status.
Child Health: In 2008, nearly 25% of the US population was under 18. Overall, parents of 84.4% of children reported their children to be in excellent or very good health in 2007, but that percentage was lower for older children. Prevention services are critical to the well being of our nationas children. These include prenatal care and immunization, and regular well child visits.
Minority Health: The current US population is approximately 67% white, 12% black, 14% Hispanic, 1% American Indian/Alaska Native, and 4% Asian. The U.S. Census Bureau projects that by 2050, populations that have historically been called a?minoritiesa? will make up nearly 50% of the U.S. population. Racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities across many health status measures and health outcomes. These differences are driven by a number of issues including income, education, and work status, as well as poor housing, neighborhood segregation, and other environmental factors within communities.
Aging: The nation is aging, primarily due to increased life expectancy and the aging of the baby boom generation. These factors will contribute to the largest-ever proportion of older adults, increasing from 12% in 2005 to almost 20% by 2030. The 78-million member baby boom generation born between 1946 and 1964 began turning 65 in 2011. While a large segment of this group will maintain health and independent functioning well past the age of 65, reaching traditional retirement age is generally accompanied by an increasing number of personal health challenges. More than three-fourths of adults over age 65 suffer from at least one chronic medical condition that requires ongoing care and management. Currently, 20% of Medicare beneficiaries have 5 or more chronic conditions. Older Americans use considerably more health care services than younger Americans and their health care needs are often complex.
Mental Illness: Persons with mental illness are some of the most vulnerable members of American society. These diseases continue to be under diagnosed and treatment is largely invisible. About one in five adults and children meet the criteria for a mental health diagnosis over the course of a year. Access to care is improving but often necessitates significant patient cost sharing.
The purpose of this lesson is to highlight the current health status of US citizens. This will be examined from five perspectives: womenas health, elder health, childrenas health, minority health, and mental health.
1. Be able to relate the major causes of disease, death and disability for select US groups.
2. Have an appreciation for national sources of valid and reliable contemporary health statistics.
3. Recognize the critical need for national health care reform in the area of health promotion and disease prevention.

Chronic diseases are now the major cause of death and disability worldwide, responsible for 59% of deaths and 46% of the global burden of disease (Coleman et al 2009). Despite advances in the effectiveness of treatment, research shows that patients frequently do not get the care they want or need. New models of care offer promise for making patient-centered, evidencebased care accessible.
The term care delivery model refers to a framework wherein the work of caring for patients is organized. Though often used interchangeably, care delivery model and professional practice model (PPM) are not synonymous. Care delivery models focus on how care is structurally organized to facilitate clinical work and quality outcomes. PPMs address how nurses are supported in delivering care. Typically, the identification and design of the PPM should come first; this should then drive the selection of a care delivery model (Shirey 2008).
The traditional clinician-centric approach to the design and delivery of health care is obsolete, contributing to health care of inferior quality and excessive cost. To meet the patient-centered needs of a modern health care system, Grumbach (2009) suggests the United States should consider adopting the Bauhaus design principle of a?form follows function.a? A Bauhaus approach would assert that the function patients need is convenient, timely, reliable, and culturally appropriate access, ideally with services coming to them. New and evolving models require clinicians to develop innovative ways of organizing care. However, new and improved approaches are not easily transplanted directly into practice. Nurses who function in advanced clinical and managerial roles possess the skills to be significant contributors to the successful design, implementation and evaluation of new models of care and their impact on patient and organizational outcomes.
The purpose of this lesson is to highlight and examine select models of healthcare delivery, from the perspective of nurses who function in advanced clinical and managerial roles.

1. Be able to identify the positives and negatives of various contemporary models of health care delivery.
2. Be able to identify your role in support of the design, implementation and evaluation of select models of health care delivery.
a? (minority women)
a? The ASSIGNMENT for overview 1 & 2 are combined
Integration Paper & Threaded Discussion Forum (8 pts)
2 page paper a please start with 2 line of introduction and the donat forget the reference.
1. Select a particular population and health problem of interest from your readings in overview 1 and briefly describe the health care problem.
2. Discuss 2 benefits and 2 problems about using 1 of the health care delivery models from overview 2 to address the care of your population and health problem of interest.
3. Conclude with your assessment of how at least 2 of your advanced professional roles could be used to advance the success of that model of care.
Note from the customer my professional part is women health
Kindly use 3 from the reference below
a? Anderson G (2007). Chronic conditions: Making the case for ongoing care. Johns Hopkins University. (See e-Reserves)
Halle, M., Lewis, C.B., Seshamani, M (2009). Health disparities: A case for closing the gap. Healthreform.GOV. Halle et al-HealthDisparity-2009.pdf
Heron, M. & Tejada-Vera, B (Dec 23, 2009). Deaths: Leading causes for 2005. National Vital Statistics Reports, 58(8), 1-18. Heron & Tejada-Vera 2009.pdf
NOTE: This is the most up to date summary of US death rates. The document is large. Read only the abstract and then go to page 7 and read the a?resultsa? section from page 7-18. Familiarize yourself in particular with the statistics relevant for your age group of interest. In future papers it is important to quote the most recent statistics. Using this document demonstrates your attention to rigor and your knowledge of primary data sources.
Glied, S.A. & Frank, R.G. (2009). Better but not best: Recent trends in the well-being of the mentally ill. Health Affairs, 28(3), 637a 648. (See e-Reserves)
Institution of Medicine (2008). Retooling for an aging America: Buildi