Ellular Phone while usage while driving motor vehicle

These are the instructions”
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Your final project will be a research paper of 9-12 pages on a topic you have developed over the course of the term.

Recall from Unit 1 that this research paper is NOT:

* Everything you can find on a topic
* One persons view on a topic
* Only the material that supports your preconceived opinion
* An opinion essay or a personal narrative

This research paper is:

A paper that makes an argument. Its goal is to persuade, not simply to inform.

A paper that uses outside research to support this argument, but that contains the authors own analysis of this outside research to make the argument.

Sources: Your research paper must directly refer to at least five sources (in the papers text, not just in the references page). Of these, no more than two can be Internet-only sources. Internet-only means articles found ONLY on the Web. Articles you receive from MasterFILE Premier,Academic Search Elite(see below), or other library databases are not considered Internet-only. At least two must be books or academic articles. One great way to find academic sources is to look for articles in refereed or peer-reviewed journals, and Academic Search Eliteallows you to limit your search to scholarly (peer-reviewed) journals.

Your final project research paper must include a references page containing all sources used, even those not directly referred to in the paper itself. Note: this requirement that your references page must include all sources used and not just those referred to in the paper itself is a course requirement, not an APA requirement. The references page is in addition to, not included in, the 9-page minimum required for the paper. It also must include a title page. You can view models of these in the Writing Center�s reading, APA Manuscript Style.

A final important note: your final paper must be original work written for this class. This means that you must be the author (turning in a paper written by someone else is plagiarism and will not be tolerated) and you must not have turned your final paper (or another version of it) in for a grade in another class. If you wish to further develop a paper or idea you had for a prior class, you must first get your instructors permission to do so, and you must send your instructor that paper along with the instructors name, course number, and quarter it was submitted. With rare exception, this is discouraged. The goal of this course is to improve your writing, and that only happens through practice. If you do not write, you cannot improve your writing.

Further, you turned in a draft version (the Unit 7 Project) before your final version (the Unit 9 Project). You will not receive credit for turning in the same version more than once (for example, turning the same paper in as both your draft and final project). Your final project must show significant and substantial revision from the draft, meaning multiple paragraphs must be significantly revised, other paragraphs must have been added or deleted, etc. If you are unclear about what constitutes Significant revisiontalk to you instructor prior to turning in your final project.

This is the draft your company wrote for me for my project.

Introduction
Driving is a highly complex skill that requires the continual integration of interdependent perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes (Salvucci & Macuga, 2001). With time, driving becomes a routine activity, and an individual is able to perform secondary tasks like switching on the defogger or adjusting the headlights. With technological advances, sophisticated devices in the vehicle do interfere with driver s attention. A study published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) revealed that approximately 25-30 percent of the injuries caused by car crashes were due to driver distraction (Utter, 2001 cited by Tseng, Nguyen, Liebowitz, & Agresti, 2005). The use of cellular phones while driving has been established as the major cause of driver inattention. The Harvard Center for Risk Analysis found that use of cell phones while driving caused 330,000 moderate to severe injuries and approximately 2,600 deaths each year (Sundeen, 2003 cited by Tseng et al., 2005). At the same time, Brookhuis, de Vries, & de Waard (1991) found that drivers while engaged on the cell phone demonstrated decreased lane deviations (cited by Horrey & Wickens, 2004). Despite these inconsistencies, this paper will demonstrate that a total ban of cellular phone usage while operating a motor vehicle may drastically reduce road accidents.
Claims
Road accidents are a large problem that must be addressed by all. There are many sources of drivers distractions that have been associated with increased road accidents but since the introduction of cellular phones as a means of communication, there has been increased inattention while driving due to cellular phone usage. Driver distraction can be classified into two types (internal distraction and external stimuli) and four categories  visual, cognitive, auditory, and biomechanical distraction. Of these, auditory distraction is associated with cell phone usage (Tseng et al., 2005). This is more likely in case of hand-held phones but other studies demonstrate that primary cause of inattention is cognitive, which implies that even hands-free phones are equally dangerous (Horrey & Wickens).
Several studies have been conducted and on an average, it has been found that drivers talking on the mobile phones while driving have higher risks in car accidents compared to non-mobile phone users (Laberge-Nadeau et al., 2003; Wilson et al., 2003; Redelmeier and Tibshirani, 1997; Strayer and Drews, 2004 cited Tseng et al.). Use of mobile phones while driving increases the risk of collisions by four times, which is also confirmed by Redelmeier and Tibshirani (1997). In addition, frequent mobile phone users had relatively higher risk than rare-users. Making calls or talking on the cell phone is definitely more risky than listening to the radio or talking to other passengers while driving.
Redelmeier and Tibshirani (1997) found that cellular telephone use is more common in urban areas with Tulsa and Oklahoma counties accounting for 60% of cellular telephone in use crashes in 1993 and 51% in 1994 (as cited on the police crash report). Among, the 77 counties in Oklahoma phone use crashes were reported in 32 counties in both 1993 and 1994. Their study revealed that younger drivers had significantly higher risk of collision than the older drivers. Hands-free units were not any safer than the hand-held units were.
Investigations conducted in 1997 by the Japan Safe Driving Centre showed that hand-held cellular telephone (HHS) use while driving significantly affected the drivers reaction times, scanning ability and lane-keeping performance (Tokunaga, Shimojo, Hagiwara, Kagaya, & Uchida, n.d.). Esbjornsson and Juhlin (n.d.), cite that crash data analysis suggests that it is the conversation that affects driving more than handling the phone.
Challenges
Not all communication tasks interfere with driving (Vollrath & Totzke, n.d.). Visual information processing definitely decreases driving performance. While everyone knows that many accidents are caused by cellular phone usage while driving, finding accurate assessment of its scope has been a challenging task. For one, many minor accidents go unreported and the proper documentation that these are caused due to cell phone usage would be difficult to prove. Secondly, it is impossible to prevent the driver from talking to passengers while driving. In which case, it would be equally impossible to ban the use of hands-free cell phones while driving. Thirdly, the hazard associated with use of cell phone while driving is the same as driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit (Redelmeier & Tibshirani).
According to Redelmeier, D.A., and Tibshirani, R.J. (1997), the current road