Eographical Issues a an essay which critically evaluates an issue from a geographical perspective

SQA Advanced Higher Geography Issues Essay a Instruction Sheet
Geographical Issues a an essay which critically evaluates an issue from a geographical perspective
TitleMigration within Europe
Critical Essay is about migration within Europe suggesting that migration within Europe mainly benefits all the countries involved.
Example of structure Subjects/Geography/Advanced_Higher/External_Assessment/Examples/example6
Harvard referencing /pdf

2) Combination of briefing papers from migration watch.
briefing-paper/12.4

briefing-paper/4.16

files/FiscalEJ.pdf

4) MigrationFINAL.pdf

Introduction has already been started and is below.


Migration within Europe
European citizens are free to travel and migrate within Europe. This is a result of the 1985 Schengen agreement which enables citizens of countries in the Schengen area to live and work anywhere within the area. There are currently 26 participating states in this agreement of which 22 are members of the EU. The EU also has a free movement of citizenas directive which since 2004 enables the citizens of all 28 member states to move and reside freely in any of its member states. Most of the immigrants in western European countries have migrated from former Eastern bloc countries such as Poland or Romania. Elderly citizens of northern European countries also often migrate south for the better weather to countries such as Spain or Italy.
There are many factors which influence peopleas decision to migrate. There are push and pull factors for migrating or staying. Push factors are the reason people leave and they can include high crime rates, lack of services, environmental disasters, war, and poverty. Pull factors are what attract migrants to a particular area and these can include better employment prospects, better services, political stability, safer as lower crime rates or no war and a lower risk from natural disasters. Migration usually occurs as a result of both push and pull factors.
There are different types of migration such as economic migration, social migration, political migration and migration due to the environment. The main types of migration within Europe economic and social migration. This is because people migrate within Europe to find employment or for a better quality of life. Wealthier EU countries such as the UK which has a GNI per capita of US$41, 680 and Germany with a GNI per capita of US$47,270 attract more migrants. These migrants mainly come from the poorer eastern European countries such as Poland with a GNI per capita of US$13,240 and Romania with a GNI of US$9,060 per capita. The prospect of employment and an improved salary are the main pull factor which has attracted migrants from other EU counties.
The migrants can benefit from moving as the can gain employment, better salary, better quality of life, improved services and experience a different culture. This can help them as they can have more money for a better quality of life and some of which can be sent back to their family. They can also gain new skills or learn a new language which may help them in the future.
(The map bellows shows which countries are involved in the Schengen agreement and how they are involved)


EU member states participating
EU member states not participating but obliged to join
EU member states with an opt-out
Non-EU member states participating
Non-EU member states de facto participating
Non-EU member states with an open border

The country that is receiving the migrant workers will also benefit as they will receive more tax from the migrant workers and jobs that were not being filled by the locals will be taken by the migrants. This may also cause some problems such as racism as the unemployed may be jealous of the migrants that are employed even though the employment they have is often low paid.
Most of the refugees or asylum seekers in the EU come from countries outside the EU such as Afghanistan or Iraq where there are wars that are currently occurring.