Eography 2: Edit down from 4132 words to 2000 words

Geography 2: Edit down from 4132 words to 2000 words i request the reseasrcher i had for order number 109158 to do this piece
Raphael s knowledge from School of Athens:
Aristotle pointed out in his Rethoric that every metaphor arises from the intuition of an analogy between different things. Later, much later, Borges identified metaphor as one of the common threads in different world literatures. Raffaello Sanzio, 1483-1520 painted, the fresco  La Scuola di Atene (The School of Athensä) in the years 1509 -1511 and is located in the  Stanza della Segnatura in the Vatican.
The painting, has two clear messages. The first is that knowledge is a dialog, a dialogue which is implicit in the process of learning. When we learn, when we study, when we produce new knowledge, we are engaging in a dialogue which transcends time and space. This dialogue is not just with our contemporaries, but with our precursors as well as with the scholars of centuries to come. This message is implicit in the parade of scholars from different times and places all congregated at the School of Athens. This dialogue takes place in a community beyond both space and time, a community which is being continuously recreated within the modern college of arts and sciences.
The second message in the painting is the unity of knowledge. At the School of Athens, many different disciplines are taught, but it is their simultaneous teaching that constitutes the strength and uniqueness of the liberal arts. Note the metaphor that Raphael himself uses to signify the unity of knowledge -the architectural structure.
Cyborg s Posthumans:
The centrality of human-machine weapon systems is a key aspect of postmodern war. Since 1939 such systems have proliferated while improved interfaces have led to several types of actual cyborg soldiers. As the crisis of postmodern war deepens it is producing a series of quite different militarized bodies. Cyborgs proliferate in type so it is no surprise that we have pilot-cyborgs and teleoperators, info-cyborgs (from political operatives to clerks and including all the servants of the computers and weapons systems), and various fighting cyborg soldiers and sailors. There has also been a resurgence of a type of irregular warrior that many commentators describe as bestial. It is not a coincidence that while humanity is on the verge of producing real posthumans (quite possibly for military applications) so-called prehuman types of war have broken out across the globe. War is based on bodies and its skewed logics have driven many cyborgian developments. Now, both war and our cyborg society are involved in a linked crisis fuelled by the relentless march of technoscience that has made modern war impossible and posthumans probable. The future of the human, and of a multitude of potential posthumanities, will largely be determined by how this crisis is resolved.
The posthuman view, according to Hayles, is suggestive rather than prescriptive. It privileges informational pattern over material instantiation, so that embodiment in a biological substrate is seen as an accident of history rather than an inevitability of life. The posthuman view considers consciousness, regarded as the seat of human identity in the Western tradition long before Descartes, as an epiphenomenon, an evolutionary upstart trying to claim that it is the whole show when in fact it is only a minor side-show. The posthuman view regards the body as the original prosthesis we all learn to manipulate, so that extending or replacing the body with other prostheses becomes a continuation of a process that began before we were born. Above all, Hayles claims that by these and other means, the posthuman view configures human beings so that they can be seamlessly articulated with intelligent machines. In the posthuman, there are no essential differences or absolute demarcations between bodily existence and computer simulation, cybernetic mechanism and biological organism, robot teleology and human goals.
Information Revolution:
The spatial structure underlying the Internet and the geographic analysis of cyberspace are receiving growing attention. Over the past decade, the literature on the spatial dimension on cyberspace has informed our understanding of this phenomenon. Important contributions to our analysis include Hepworths (1990) Geography of the Information Economy, Brunn and Leinbachs (1991) Collapsing Space and Time, Kellermans (1993) Telecommunications and Geography, Battys (1993) geography of cyberspace, Bakis, Abler, and Roche (1994) on global corporate networks, and Castells trilogy (1996, 1997, 1998) on the information age. More recently, Wilson and Corey (2000) address the geographic context for cyberspace, while Dodge (2000) tackles the challenge of mapping the intangible nature of the Internet. The urban dimension has received attention from Rheingolds (1993) Virtual Communities, to Graham and Marvins (1996) Telecommunications and the City, Castells (1989) Informational City, Mitchells (1996) City of Bits, and Horan s (2000) Digital Places.
Geography offers many insights into spatial form and function. There are the geographies of the physical infrastructure that allows electronic interaction, of the flows of information and finance that rely upon electronic infrastructure, and of the economic activities that depend and derive from information technologies. From another perspective, geography offers the perspective of hierarchy. From micro-scale to global-scale, the hierarchy includes: intelligent corridors; cyber communities; cyber conurbations; intelligent megalopolitan development; national-scale information infrastructures; regional-scale information infrastructures; and the global-scale intelligent  ecumenopolis. (Doxiadis and Papaioannou 1974) As access to, and use of, cyberspace becomes increasingly important for work as well as leisure, what patterns of hubs and hub hierarchies emerge among these electronic geographies? The networks connecting these hubs are conduits of information flows that also represent different levels and hierarchies.
The geographic aspects of cyberspace include spatial variations and disparities. Comparisons, in this context, might be made between boundaries identifying  have from  have not areas in virtual space and in real space. One might see this as a geography of inequity, and at various scales ranging from such patterns inside cities at neighborhood scales to large regional variations across the globe producing  information colonies. Such disparities exist, and they need measurement, mapping, spatial analysis and interpretation for full understanding.
Geography is concerned with demarcation of places and interaction. What is the role of boundaries and borders in cyberspace? Some perceive cyberspace as without boundaries, yet jurisdictional borders do, in fact, play a role in political space, and therefore in real space. For example, the current debate in the United States about taxing the sale of goods bought over the Internet has raised these issues to high-profile discussions among inter-governmental officials and business leaders. The spatial organization of regulation, taxation, and enforcement of law in cyberspace demands the perspective and attention of researchers and scholars training in spatially oriented disciplines.
Each of these spatial organizational examples lend themselves to the geometric approach of seeking pattern among electronic activities as they are analyzed to conform to points, areas, lines, flows, shapes, distance, direction, and so on. These variations over space  as well as over time  represent one of the fundamental conceptual building blocks to systematically identify the spatial organization of cyberspace. This paper discusses locality and spatial organization in cyberspace, from the perspective of institutions such as government, the law, and business. This discussion is both conceptual and prescriptive, and intended to inform corporate, public and citizen decision makers.
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