Classical Beginings
Geography as a discipline has a long history. ITs roots are much older than its distinctive identity. It is traditionally tracked back toGreek Classical times where iuts emergence was intimately related to the development of sscience.

A PRelude
The Greeks themselves inherited understandings and ideas frkom earlier civilistations. The earliest written txts that have been deciphered come from Greece.

The Classical School
Raphaelss Scool of AThens 1509
Plato  Lookt to the perfection of the heavens for truth
The supreme science was a method of enquiry that constantly questions assumptions and by explaining one ideas in terms of a more general idea.
Aristotle  Look around you at what is if you would know the truth
Meterorologica 340 BC
An observer but not an experimentalist
The school of Athens and the development of ~Greek Ideas
 Every form of admiration has for centuries been lavished on the School of Athens, yet fresh beauties are to be discovered in it every day and it may be said that the completion of this great work realised the dream of hte Renaissance .. The works of antiquity were at length equalled if not surprassed, and the school of Athens weas the crowning point in alohng series of scenturies .

The Medieval period
After hte 5th century the develoipment of Geographical ideas declined in Europe.
1. Arabic Geographers preserved and developed many of hte classical achievements
Ibn Haukal
Al Balki
2. In europe the influence of Ptolemy and Aristotle returned in theb late medieval period.

Bibliography for part one
James P.E 1972 ALL Possible Works
Muntz, E. 1888 Raphael Sis life works and Times
Thompson D. Raphael: The life and the Legacy

The scintific revolution nof the 16-18th centuries
From Jacopo di Cioni to Leonardo da Vinci to John Constable

The identity of the scientific revolution
The scientific revolution is a term probably coined in 1937 by Alexandre Koyre
Some of the elements included in accounts of hte scientific revolution include
a. the mechanisation if nature-understanding natural processes with reference to mechanical metaphors
b. Seperation of people and nature to see what nature is really like
Mechanising knowledge making using formulated rules of method to eliminate human passions and motives
d. ASpiring to new knowledge to achieve moral social and political ends

It was an attack on the earth centered earth static model of Aristotles universe.
The mechanisation of nature. The clock became a powerful symbol.
But the picture of a purely mecdhanistic science is a gross oversimplification.
The old and the new
a The Book of Nature was the new souce of knowledge
b The indicative method became the model for discovering this knowledge
Self evident experience was replaced by experiments although not the same as the experimental method of today.
d. Scientific instrements became the hallmar4k of the new scientist

Geographical Exploration as the Foundation of the Scientific Revolution
Prince Henry the Navigator. Florence, Ptolemy and scientific innovation.

Case 1: LAtitude and Longitude. Dava Sobel, 1996
Case 2: Meterology the fusiojn of art and science . The classical treatment of skies.
Constables harmony and realism. The Hay Wain 1821. Experiments 1820-22, and the scientific work of Luke Howard.

New Emphases within Geography

a. taught with mathematics and astronomy
b. provided cartographic navigatiohnal and surveying skills
c. central to political and commercial goals behind global exploration

Bourdreau B. A 1998 John Constables 1821 and 1822 Cloud Studies the artist as a scientist?
Chipperfield D. C. director The ever changing sky John Costable 1776-1837 video recording
Debus A F 1978 Man and the Nature in Renaissance
Henry J 1999 The scientific revolution and the origins of modern science
Livingstone D N 1990 Geography tradition and the scintific revolution an interperative essay Trans inst Brit Geographers New series vol.15 no.3 pp359-372
PArry J.H 1981 The Age of REconnaissance: Discovery Exploration and settlement
Rees R 1976 John Constable and the art of geography, Geogr. Rev., vol66 pp 59-72
Shapin S. 1996 The Scientific Revolution
Thornes J. E. 1999 John Constables Skies

With particular reference to the above while also looking at

Striking Picture The cruxifiction JAcvopo di Cione 1365-98

Muscles of the neck and shoulders Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519

The Hay Wain John Constable 1776-1837

The scientific revolution a recent term
1 No discrete event
2. No science
3.Uncertain origins of the scentific method
4 Strong Continuity

Some of the elements of the scientific revolution
1 Mechansism of nature
2 People and nature seperated
3 Formulating knowledge making
New Knowledge was applied

Plato and the Aristotle
our interest in the past
The earth centered view of the universe
Cornicus Gailelo

Mecanisation of nature
The Strasbourg clock of 1354 Notre Dame Cathedral

rf QT Luong terragailera.com

The Prague clock of 1410 Town Hall

The old ajnd the new
1 The Book of nature
the root of modern empericism
knowledge from direct sense experience
intellectual individualism

2. The inductive method Bacon
Observation experiment casual knowledge general truth

3. Experiments replaced self evident experience for crediability
4 Instruments the hakkmark of the new ccientist
the barometer thermometer

Gasper Schotts and Von Guericles
experiment at Hagdeburg 1657

Johiannes Hevelius telescope selenographia
Geography exploration travel
a foundation for the scientific revolution
Franci Bacon 1630  The Great Instauration
The ship represents learning pillars of hercules are straits of Gibraltar
many shall pass to and fro and knowledge shall be increased
De Verulamio suimmi Angliae
Longistude Dava sorel

John Constable 1821 The Hay within
Sky land and harmony light cloud form, perspective
clouds to depth of convection
smoke fluttering leaves
Then importance of the early sky studies of the nineteenth century
is the new freedom of esxpression htat was based on a more or less total knbowledge of the subject matter.
study and almost society observation of the physical phenom,enon of motion and light result in a deep understanding of atmospheric phenomena.
with this knowledge and understanding and the artist is in a position to create more freely to summarise and extract.