Eography Focault i request the old researcher i had for 104157 to do this piece

TITLE: Michael Foucaults work on the history of subjectivity, governmentality and space has been highly influential in shaping the geographers understanding of the relationship between modernity and identity. Discuss
The Twentieth Century has opened the gateways of a modern world, by ushering in new technology and scientific advancement. The world has undergone change and there is an increasing need to redefine life-styles, values and interpretations in this new light. In order to understand the nature of time and space, and evaluate the relationship between technological innovation and social space in the modern world, it is imperative to do the following: a) analyze the factors and influences that have impacted the changes in spatial changes and constructs b) understand of the implications of the modern condition in the construction of subjectivity and the connections between Modernity and Globalization. This dissertation shall discuss the various aspects relevant in the study with especial reference to the social theorist Foucault, one of the philosophers who have contributed to the reformation of modern geography with regard to individual subjectivity and identity.
Michel Foucault, a French philosopher and theorist, initiated a lasting relationship between the post-structural movements and concepts like, genealogy of power; the body and sexuality in relation to power; power in relation to politics and freedom; subjectivity, identity and resistance; feminism etc. Michel Foucault has to his credit the following works: The History of Sexuality; Discipline and Punish, Politics; Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings Knowledge, etc; Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics; Michel Foucault: Power/Knowledge. While some people find Foucault s analysis of the relations between power and the body enlightening, some others have criticized his theories, drawing attention to its limitations. It is interesting to note that, even though Foucault has made very few references to the female gender or women in general in his writings, his postulations on the relationship between power, the body and sexuality have set off wide-spread feminist interest. Foucault has also studied the power of discipline and training with relevance to the society in general and how it becomes an important tool in the hand of the state to control and inspect.
 Genealogy of Power and the Modern Subject.
Foucaults inference of power has diminished individuals to a subservient status   docile bodies and as victims of disciplinary technologies. Foucault has analyzed power in various perspectives and remarks that modern power-exorcists function, in effect, to produce people as subjects who are both the objects and vehicles of power. He claims that the relationship  of power and a strategy of struggle there is a reciprocal appeal, a perpetual linking and a perpetual reversal. At every moment the relationship of power may become a confrontation between two adversaries. Equally, the relationship between adversaries in society may, at every moment, give place to the putting into operation of mechanisms of power (Foucault, 1982). The laws and regulations that govern the society at large are very important, and they become the primary tools at the hands of the government to exercise control, to bring about order and general conformity among the subjects of the state. According to Foucault, a  society without power relations cannot exist, or at best can be only  abstraction . The works  Discipline and Punish and  The History of Sexuality delineates the on-set of some of the early practices, then existent forms of knowledge, social institutions and instruments of government which have played a role in the shaping of modern cultural Europe. In his method of study, he has employed a new angle to the conservative form of historical analysis, which he has named genealogical. Genealogy is a kind of critical study of history, because it attempts to analyze the situation of the present time, and of what we are, in this very moment in order to question & what is postulated as self-evident & to dissipate what is familiar and accepted (Foucault, 1988). Instead of the placing the basis of historical analysis on individual  actors or heroes of history, genealogy dissects the complicated, nascent network of relations between power, knowledge and the body producing forms of subjectivity particular and specific to that part of history. The importance of Genealogy lies in going beyond than the study itself this is, it is to be treated as a sort of critical assessment of the society which seeks to explore the possibilities of a social change and ethical transformation. He has explained its relevance as  it consists of using this resistance as a chemical catalyst so as to bring to light power relations, locate their position, and find out their point of application and the methods used (1982). Foucault has introduced another concept of juridico-discursive power (Foucault, 1978); he states that it has its origins in the practices of power centeredness of pre-modern societies. In such societies, power was centralized and controlled by an absolute authority, who exercised total control over the population by means of threat or show of extreme force. Stalinist Russia, wherein, people who opposed his principles were ruthlessly identified and eliminated openly within the wall of Kremlin, may be cited as an example, in the modern context. The consequences of the above can be polarized into two, according to Foucault. 1) The Social Body: The efficiency of the state/government in as a whole in the focus of the management of the life processes of the social body (population). Examples are the regulation of birth, death, sickness, disease, health, sexual relations etc. 2) The Human body: as an object to be manipulated and trained by disciplinary power. This he has termed as Bio-Power.
Herein,  the Panoptican Writings of Bentham (1787), find relevance in Foucault s construction of theories. An in-depth treatment of the aspects of the power of disciplining and training can be found in Foucault s  Discipline and Punish . In the planning of buildings for large congregation of populations to be kept under inspections, such as hospitals, hotels and schools and prisons he  noticed that all the great projects for re-organizing the prisons (which date, incidentally, from a slightly later period, the first half of the nineteenth century) take up this same theme, but accompanied this time by the almost invariable reference to Bentham. There was scarcely a text or a proposal about the prisons which didnt mention Benthams device the Panopticon (1974). Bentham first brought out the plan to constructions in the form of rings or in semi-circles which shall enable easier surveillance of people, especially for prisons, schools, mad-houses, penitentiary-house, factories etc. Here, the important aspect of disciplinary power is exercised directly on the body. With this sort of power that has been brought about by discipline and training, the human bodies become subjected and practiced bodies which he terms as  docile bodies . But, Foucault states that it came to be applied, as time passed, more broadly as instruments of social regulation and control. This system of surveillance is economical, and the  political cost  , lesser than violence  with  the system of surveillance, which on the contrary involves very little expense. There is no need for arms, physical violence, material constraints (1974). Surveillance has since become a powerful weapon of the state to map the contours, geographies, even track human beings using satellite imaging (example of the US scourging for Osama Bin Laden in recent times).  Thematic mapping technologies , a notable one of which is,  the cadastral map, which record land ownership and resource characteristics is also extensively used by governments. (Adapted from Goss, 1995). Foucault has gone further, and has stated th