Essays (250 words each) from James L Gelvins THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST and Akram Khaters SOURCES IN HISTORY OF THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST

You MUST complete all 5 essays. Be sure to provide APA format citations and references based on the required readings and sources within your answers. Each essay should be a minimum of one page (250 words).

The midterm is based on the beginning of the Gelvin textbook through Chapter 10 and the first four chapters in Khateras Sources.

Your essays must be thesis driven. You need to develop a thesis for each essay, which is expressed in the introduction and then supported throughout. Your essays should conclude with a summarizing but non-repetitious paragraph. Make sure to develop your ideas and thoughts clearly and concisely. You will be graded on:
a? Critical thinking
a? Content
a? Organization of ideas and paragraphing
a? Writing style
a? Spelling and grammar

Midterm exam questions:
1.How does Prof. Gelvin define a?defensive developmentalism?a? What are its main attributes, who practiced it, and why? What were its limitations and how successful was it in resisting western encroachment?
2.Analyze both modernist and fundamentalist approaches by the people of the Middle East to western encroachment. Be sure to provide specific examples of each and account for the success or failure of each.
3.What was the a?great game?a? Analyze the major players, their roles, goals, successes and failures. Do you see any impact on modern Iran?
4.Why did the Ottoman Empire collapse in the end of the 19th and early part of the 20th Centuries including World War I? Be sure to analyze the reform efforts of Mahmet Ali and then the Young Turks. Ultimately, why did they fail?
5.Did the people of the Middle East adopt any western ideas by the beginning of the 20th century? Analyze such areas of government, economy, social changes like status of women, and culture (art, music, architecture).