Evelopment and the Environment-Environmental Factors and Human Activity
Many urban areas in the Third World are currently experiencing very high rates of
economic and demographic growth. The vast majorities live in poverty and are particularly susceptible to a wide range of natural and human-caused hazards.
i) Explain the growth of most cities in the Third World in relation to the high level of migration
from rural areas to urban areas.
ii) Explain why the poor are particularly vulnerable to these hazards. Be specific.
iii) What strategies can be followed to improve the standard of living of the urban poor?
Essays must use a least 6 different resources from appropriate academic sources,
Journals, monographs and text books are appropriate academic resources with journal
articles being the preferred source of primary information. Novels, encyclopedia,
dictionaries, opinion websites and wikis are not!
Bartone, C. (1991). Environmental challenge in third world cities. Journal of the American
Planning Association. 57(4):411-415.
Cohen, M. (1993). Megacities and the environment. Finance and Development, 30(2):44-47.
Ezcurra, E., Mazari-Hiriart, M., Major, D., Brimblecombe, P. & Cohen, M. (1996) Are
megacities viable? A cautionary tale from Mexico City. Environment, 38(1): 4.
Melchert, L. (2005). The age of environmental impasse? Globalization and environmental
transformation of metropolitan cities. Development and Change, 36: 803.
Satterthwaite, D. (1997). Environmental transformations in cities as they get larger, wealthier and
better managed. The Geographical Journal, 163(2):216-224.