Evelopments in the nineteenth century that drove the shifts in Imperial policies and practices of European Empires during New Imperialism

My paper topic is for my European Empires class, and is about New Imperialism in Europe. Imperialism from the late nineteenth century to early twentieth century is referred to as New Imperialism. New imperialism implies that there was a significant shift in the processes and policies of imperialism among the European empires during this period (1870 to about 1915). One of the shifts that took place was the shift from mercantile system (focus on expansion of trade and markets by controlling ports) to alot of movement inland especially at the end of the 19th century (the beginning of infrastructure in colonial territories: use of railroads, mines, hotels, etc). Also, the local populations in the colonies worked for the Europeans, and because of this the Europeans established a new class structure in the colonies that was based on their own class structure in Europe, and this was another change in imperial policies of the European Empires. There were also a lot of small wars that took place, and there was a use of force in colonization, very invasive. These are the changes in imperial policies (among others) that defined new imperialism. My goal in the paper is to explain that these changes in the imperial policies of the Europeans were driven by two things, the second industrialization (1860s-beginning of WW1) and the rise of a pack of nation states in Europe. The following paragraph is my intro paragraph, which should give a pretty good idea about my topic (you can change it all you want, but im just putting it in here to help you get an idea of what im trying to write about, also the imbedded citations may not be correct and some of this might be gramatically incorrect or confusing b/c i wrote it pretty quicly):

a?New Imperialisma? implies that a significant shift occurred in the processes and policies of imperialism, particularly in the late-nineteenth century to early twentieth-century Europe. These shifts (among others) included the moving away from the economic doctrine of mercantilism that focused on the expansion of trade and markets through strategic control of ports towards the establishment of large scale, formal empires by way of aggressive internal penetration of territory and the exercising of control over the geography and population in those territories. We need only a glimpse at a few statistics to see that these shifts had remarkable consequences. According to Daniel R. Headrickprofessor of social sciences at Roosevelt University and author of The Tools of Empirea?in the year 1800 Europeans occupied or controlled thirty-five percent of the land surface of the world; by 1878 this figure had risen to sixty-seven percent, and by 1914 over eighty-four percent of the worldas land area was European-dominated. a?The British Empire alone,a? Headrick continues, a?already formidable in 1800a¦ increased itas land area sevenfold and its population twentyfold in the following hundred years (Headrick 1981, 3).a? However, these shifts and were not simply coincidental. In fact, the changes in the imperial policies of the Europeans during the era of a?New Imperialisma? were driven by two major nineteenth century developments: the second industrial revolution, and the emergence of a pack of European nation states.

In the next paragraph i just wanted to define imperialism so the reader would be clear as to what i was referring to. I used the MerriamWebster dictionary defintion of imperialism along with part of the definition on page 9 of Edward Saids book titled Culture and Imperialsm.My paragraph defining imperialism was placed after my intro paragraph, and goes as follows:

Before I begin my argument, I must first define imperialism. Imperialism, as defined by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, is a?the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nationa¦ over the political or economic life of other areas (Merriam-Webster).a? To put this in simple terms, imperialism is the acquisition and buildup of territory and capital. However, the Merriam-Webster definition does not quite pin the proverbial tail on the donkey, for it lacks one key component of imperialism: what is the justification for this said extension of power? According to Edward Saidformer professor of English and comparative literature at Columbia University and author of Culture and Imperialismthe acts a?of accumulation and acquisitiona¦ are supported and perhaps even impelled by impressive ideological formations that include notions that certain territories and people require and beseech domination, as well as forms of knowledge associated with domination (Said 1993, 9).a? Thus, the working definition for Imperialism from here on out is the combination of two previous definitions, which goes as follows: the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nationa¦ over the political or economic life others, which is supported and perhaps even impelled by impressive ideological formations that include notions that certain territories and people require and beseech domination, as well as forms of knowledge associated with domination.

Second industrial revolution gave Europeans new technology, science, a need for raw materials, etc. Also led to rise in modern transportation, communication, etc (Tools of Empire by Daniel R. Headrick is a very good source that explains this perfectly). The third section of Headricks book titled The communications revolutionis very good for this. Basically explain the second industrial revolution, what came out of the second industrial revolution and how it drove the changes in the imperial policies. Use Africa, India, East Asia as examples for areas that were effected by changes in industrial policies as a result of second industrial revolution

The rise of a pack of nation states in Europe also shifted the imperial policies of the European Empires during this time. This was based on the institutions and power of the nation state (could tax public, etc). and the rising competition between the big powers. Before new Imperialism, Britain was considered to be unchallenged power in Europe. But Italy and especially Germany rose to power during the new imperialism. Competition drove European Empires to take more and more territory to assert their position as the most powerful (ex: scramble for African territory in 1870s) blah blah blah.

Thats pretty much the type of stuff Im looking for. Add on whatever you think is necessary. Thanks, and I am excited to see the results. Also, my phone is broken, so if you have any questins, please email me.

In terms of sources, 10 is what i would like, but anything from 7-10 would be fine.

Also, Im not quite sure what the time zone thing is, but I am on pacific standard time.