Frican dictators are responsible for the lack of development in the continent.

Add 12 additional pages using the existing work and outline provided below. Information can be cited regardless of origin using the sources also attached below.

OUTLINE >
a. Pro: Dictators are at fault
i. Dictators are to be blamed because they are the ones currently in charge
ii. They have the power to administer change
iii. Discuss corruption and looting of public funds that cripples the country s economy
iv. Human rights violations during elections to ensure stability of power
v.
b. Con: Dictators are not at fault
i. Merely acting in a system that has been around since post-colonial times
ii. Colonialists are to blame, through the arbitrary divisions of the continent irrespective of tribal boundaries they have made civil war inevitable
iii. Citizens are to blame as they do not have the intelligence to change their government or chose not to (e.g. Ukraine, Georgia)


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Existing Body -->
Thesis: African dictators are responsible for the lack of development in the continent.
Africa as a continent is the most underdeveloped, boasting the highest HIV prevalence rates with some countries as high at 40%. The continent is also characterized by having the highest infant mortality rates at 16%. Africa also has the lowest life expectancies as low as 39 in some countries. Through these objective measures it becomes blatantly apparent that Africa has the worst quality of life anywhere on the globe. The question then becomes, what factor has created these circumstances. This essay aims to investigate the factors that have caused the decaying of this beautiful continent.
Through the analysis of the various African leaders in becomes blatantly apparent that corruption supersedes any moral values. With presidents like Mobutu Sese Seko of Congo credited with looting over US$ 5 billion of public funds and Sani Abacha who stole $ 4 billion. It becomes blatantly apparent that most African leaders are primarily concerned with adding to their bank account over developing a national infrastructure.
These dictators administer gross human rights violations to secure and maintain power. This year Robert Mugabe fought a civil war to extend his presidential reign that has to date exceeded 2 decades and 17 million % inflation per annum. Mugabe has ordered the execution of many public figures, admitted guilt for beating the other presidential candidate and used soldiers at voting stations to ensure victory. After still managing to lose the popular vote, he used the army to keep him in power. Dictators like Charles Taylor of Liberia, a fellow Bentley student has used child soldiers as old as 6 to fight his civil wars. From an emotional standpoint the various African dictators are guilty of many human rights violations that have resulted in the psychological and infrastructural decay of the African continent.
Thus it appears that the dictators are the reason for the economic and social decay of Africa. However, it is interesting and almost essential to look beyond the first line of blame to see the larger factors at play in the ruin of modern Africa. From a logical perspective, they are the heads of state and if the state is failing below their rule they are clearly the ones responsible
When looking at the larger picture behind the demise of Africa, it becomes interesting to look at whether these leaders are acting unethically by looting public funds or merely players in a larger system that is the reflection of local views. It is possible that in countries in Africa with homicide rates as high as 50 per 100,000 / year in many African countries that the dictators are merely a product of their environment. Idi Amin former dictator of Uganda seized the presidential office through a coup d etat. The presidential office was a long way from his origins as the son of a local  witch , abandoned by his father and conscripted into the army at 17 by force it comes as no surprise that once in such a position he would only be concerned with elevating the status of his bank account. It is leaders like Amin and Robert Mugabe that are typically accredited with the demise of Africa but it becomes interesting to consider they are just a product of their environment.

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Works Cited

Chan, Stephen. Robert Mugabe: A Life of Power and Violence. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan P, 2003.
This book chronicles the life of Robert Mugabe from his rule of the country post-independence and initial successful rule leading to economic prosperities as extreme as the Zim Dollar being stronger than the US dollar in the 80s to its creation of the current economic turmoil that witness s inflation exceeding 15 million % per year. The highest in the world. It also discusses his political policies and influence in the world.

Chirot, Daniel. Modern Tyrants. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1996.
The author provides a framework of conceptual driven dictatorships like Hitlers reign in Nazi Germany. It then uses this framework to compare the modern dictatorships of those like Idi Amin former dictator of Uganda. Its main utility is in its method of definition and criteria for which to compare a modern dictator to.

Grinker, Roy, and Christopher Steiner. Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 1997.
It is a collection of 44 articles that cover a broad range of topics discussing the culture of Africa. Including the long-term harm colonialism has inflicted on the landscape of Africa. It also provides a citizens perspective of the continent.


Fan, C. Simon. ”Kleptocracy and corruption.Journal of Comparative Economics 34.1 (March 2006): 57(18). Gale. Bentley College-Solomon R Baker Lib.. 30 Sept. 2008 <start.do?prodIdIPS>.
Gale Document Number:A146154254

This article discusses the parallels between poverty, wage rate and corruption. It also talks about ways to avoid corruption.

Njeri, Zipporah. Mugabe pledges new government by week end.Kenya Broadcasting Corporation 25 Sept. 2008.
The article discusses the current events in Zimbabwe. It talks about the deal for a new power-sharing agreement between Robert Mugabe and democratic choice Morgan Tsvangarai. It also works as an effective piece to illustrate the constantly changing and volatile political structure in Africa.

Souare, Issaka K. Civil Wars and Coups dEtat in West Africa: An Attempt to Understand the Roots and Prescribe Possible Solutions. New York: University P of America, 2006.
This work provides an analytical perspective into the root causes of civil war and military coups in west-Africa. The effect it has on the area, and possible solutions to this problem. It provides the most analytical and unbiased investigation into the political instability, its causes and reasons for prevalence in the country.

Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London: Routledge, 2004.
The author provides an elementary introduction into African Politics. It discusses the pre-colonial history of Africa and its impact on the socio-political structure of the environment. It goes on to illustrate how the colonial era created an infrastructure that paved the way for dozens of dictators. It also provides a basic introduction to all terms relative to the political environment.

”:On the High Seas, a Tense Encounter; An African Dictator Faces His Accus