Gender schema theory and how it works across contexts

a? Use 10 or 12 pt font and double spaced.
a? You will graded on style (grammar, spelling, organization).
a? Answers should be in a complete essay format (including introduction, three body paragraphs, and conclusion).
a? The focus of your essay should be the argument I ask you to make. State your argument clearly in the introduction of your essay in the form of a thesis statement (please underline your thesis statement).
a? Be sure to answer ALL parts of the question.
a? Use only the resources I provided regarding the theory; no other resources allowed.

Question: Apply gender schema theory and consider how it works across contexts.
You MUST do the following:
o Define the theory of gender schemas. (You must use the information I provided for the theory and answers must be in YOUR OWN WORDS).
o Apply this theory to two (2) different contexts (1Friendship. 2Love/Relationship).
o Consider whether the gender schemas in these two contexts parallel each other or not and make an argument about whether you think gender schemas in these two contexts reinforce each other, subvert each other, or some combination thereof.

From the textbook
Defining Gender Schema Theory:
a? The theory is developed by Sandra Bem and builds on the frameworks of the social learning theory and cognitive-development theory. Bem addresses the flaws of the previous theories and focuses on correcting them. (Page:132).
a? One of the flaws that GST seeks to correct is finding a balance between the passive and active roles of children in the gender socialization process emphasizes on socialization from the inside out. (page:133)
a? Schemas are ways of organizing information and shape the way in which we see the world (page133).
a? Gender schemas enable us to sort characteristics and behaviors into masculine and feminine categories and then creates various other associations with those categories.
Example: Girl pink, quiet, sweet. Boy blue, etc. Man: heterosexual, strong, aggressive, competitive, etc. Women: delicate, emotional, recipient, nurturing, caring, mothering.
a? Children learn gender via these associations, and learn to limit themselves to a particular subset of behaviors. These behaviors can change and/or be manipulated at a low level (within a family) or at a larger level over time. (page:133)

Gender Schema and Friendship:
a? Historically, menas friendships were seen as the model and women were seen as incapable of forming real friendships.
a? Sexual possibilities are believed to complicate cross-gender friendships:
o Heteronormative (Look Online if not sure what it means)
a? Men and womenas friendships are different because:
o Socialization-gender schemas (little boy doesnat usually play with girls because he wants to play with trucks, not dolls).
o Psychoanalytic Theory a ego boundaries (maleas opposition to mothers and femaleas connection to mothers because of biological similarity. You can look the theory up if needed).
o Hegemonic masculinity (means that how our dominant ideas about what it means to be a man influence the behaviors of actual men in any given society).
o Gendered social networks (think: sororities and the a?he-man haters club)
o Time availability is usually similar based on gender; this can also be applied to social class.
a? Historical friendships (WOMEN): 18th and 19th C. women routinely formed deep emotional ties with other women:
o Relationships were accepted by society and seen as compatible with heterosexual marriage. They were not secret, hidden, or abnormal.
o Relationships lasted through life.
a? Historical friendships (MEN): romantic friendships of young men were similar to those of women :
o DIFFERENCE: tended to be a product of youth; not lifelong.
o Some of these relationships were only emotional, whereas others included physical contact like those of women.
o No longer fit our ideas of masculinity.

Gender Schema and Love/Relationships:
a? Just like friendships, who we fall in love with is constrained by social values:
o Thereas a relatively small set of people we can fall in love with.
a? How we think about the roles of men and women in romantic relationship draws on and builds on our gender schemas.
a? Romantic scripts: societies and cultures have stories and scripts that communicate about lone in that society:
o Characteristics of romantic love.
o Appropriate and inappropriate roles of romantic love.
o Generally, tell us about schemas in which romantic love exist.
o Scripts may tell us how to fall in love, with who, and what to do about it.
QUESTIONS to think about:
a? Whatas love?
a? Whatas attraction? What makes people attracted to each other?
a? Whatas romantic love? How does it differ from other forms of love?
a? How is romance gendered? (ANSWER: romance is something more to women).
a? Highly gendered roles:
o Emotional-feminine.
o Cross-gender.
o Pursuer (masculine) vs. pursed (feminine).
o Exchange of favors (dinner, flowers, etc.) for sex.
o Men and women seek different things within a relationship.