Hallenges in Using Interpreters in Nursing


Literature review, in a Final Project process, is intended to promote evidence-based nursing practice.

Evidence in this context refers to articles published in scientific journals reporting on empirical research. The literature review focuses on previously gained or acquired research knowledge. The research knowledge is used critically by examining decision-making in nursing as well as a basis for nursing methods. Predominantly, the review includes scientific nursing or multidisciplinary research and other disciplines applicable to nursing practice.

Structure of a Literature Review

1. Describing the phenomenon (topic) providing the focus of the review

i § Describing the background project in which the final project is related to, and the focus of the project
i § The purpose of the review and the justification of its necessity should be presented already in the introduction of the Final Project
i § The central concepts and their relation to the phenomenon under study.

2. Research questions (in which the review aims to answer)

3. Data collection

i § Description of the search process for research articles (data) from the databases.
i § Use of the databases, such as CINAHL, OVID, EBSCO, Medline and PubMed (mainly those accessed through the School library)
i § Defining selection criteria for the data (research articles) to be included in the review (for example, limitation by year, language, relevance regarding research questions).
i § Research to be included must be chosen according to the selection criteria by first reading the topic and then the abstract. If the selection criteria are met and the article is suitable for the review, proceed by reading the entire article or text. After this, the decision is made whether the article is to be included in the review.

4. Data analysis
i § For the data analysis, see Table 1. below. The table will be enclosed as an appendix at the end of the Final Project.
i § In the analysis, research results may be grouped by means of the information from the main results section and by applying content analysis.

5. Results
i § Presentation of the results by answering each of the research questions.
i § Summary of the results.

6. Discussion including e.g. the examination of the results and their significance to nursing practice

i § You may, for instance, discuss to what extent the topic has been studied and whether the research can be singled out, or whether the research design and, for example, the instruments have been utilised in previous research and in their results. Are the results applicable to the nursing environment, or which are the perspectives the studies have provided? Are certain perspectives emphasised, or do you think that a wider perspective is missing?
i § (You may also discuss the process of composing a literature review and your own learning process during your Final Project work from the viewpoint of professional development.)

Drawing Up References

All the used sources, including the analysed research articles, must be covered in the references section.

Example of Using Tables during the Data Analysis

TABLE 1. Framework for Analysing Research Data.

Author(s), year, country where the study was conducted Purpose Participants
(sample size) Data collection and analysis Main results Remarks


Savoyard, Helen 2008: Doing a Literature Review in Health and Social Care. A practical guide. Open University Press. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Burns, Nancy & Grove, Susan 2001: The Practice of Nursing Research. Conduct, Critique , & Utilization. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.


Literature review (in an empirical study where you collect data from participants)
Relevant research related to your topic
Often written in a thematic way, outlining the various themes that you have discovered from literature in relation to your topic.

Follow this Structure of a the THESIS

This is normally written when all the other sections of the report are complete. This gives a very brief overview of the report in a condensed form.

List of different sections and headings with page numbers

1. INTRODUCTION ( 1 page)
Describe the context of your topic in one page.

Why is your chosen topic important?
What is the purpose of your report/study?


When using a systematic literature review as a methodology, the key concepts are defined (for example, hygiene, pain, elderly care). The references used are normally books or reports. You cannot use any articles here that you will be using for your review of the literature your findings.


5. METHODOLOGY (3 pages)
This section must be clearly written so that it would be easy for another researcher to duplicate your research if they wished to. Figures and tables will need to be clearly labeled. Also ensure that they are relevant to your study and add to the text rather than just duplicate what you have said. Do not include or discuss the results in this section.

Data collection
Description of the participants (inclusion/exclusion) criteria.
How is the data collected (process)? What method/s is used to collect the data? Give a description of the method and the tools?

In a systematic literature review, you will give a detailed account of your database search as your data collection method.

Data analysis
How is the data analysed? Describe the method of data analysis using literature. Also describe how this method is being used in your report.

This is where you indicate what you found in your research
You give the results of your research but do not interpret them

7. DISCUSSION (3 pages)
This is where you discuss and interpret the relevance of your results, and how your findings fit with other research in the area. You are not merely stating facts (or repeating your results/findings). The discussion will relate back to your literature review and the statement of purpose of your work and your research questions. In a way you are giving answers to your research questions. You should not present any references here that are not a part of your literature review or your findings.

- implications for clinical practice
- suggestions for further research
- limitation of the study
Validity of the study

8. CONCLUSIONS (1 page)
This is a summary of the most significant results/findings. You should not include any new material in this section.

This includes all references used in your report. This must be done using the Schoolas guidelines in writing papers.

These should add extra information to your report. If you include appendices they must be referred to in the body of your text and must have a clear purpose for being included. Each appendix must be named and numbered.

- Apendix 1: Database search
- Apendix 2: Articles Analysis



Font style and size: The font recommended to be used is TIMES NEW ROMAN (font size 12). Use spacing 1.5 (in Contents-page and Bibliography-page as well). In Abstract use spacing 1.

Introductions, background, key concept, findings, discussion,conclusion MUST BE WELL REFERENCED.

I will expect to get the same result when I followed the methodology of the database search.