Hoose one of the 2 topics-see attached topics and instructions

In 5-6 pages, answer the following question, making specific references to your reading.

Option 1:
Consider the possibility or rationale for moral action in the post-1918 world. You will have to define morality, and you will have to consider the various arguments about the relationship between morality/immorality and power/legitimacy presented by Ecksteins, Kovaly, Arendt, , and Fanon. When a faith in rational and material progress can no longer guarantee moral action or meaning, how does an individual decide how to act? Upon what basis can moral action be mandated by the community or state?

Option 2:
In one way or another Ecksteins, Kovaly, Arendt, and Fanon have shown how the content of morality can be detached from its formal expression. Fixed values, especially moral ones, become suspect or transvalued or are simply replaced by various alternatives (a withdrawal to the interior, an embrace of  kitsch , a blind acceptance of ideological leadership, a terrorized fear of action, a focus on material consumption, impotent or merely cathartic expressions of anger, etc.) The major crises of the 20th century (war, totalitarianism, colonialism) all challenge the notion of a fixed and reliable set of norms and values, and each lead people to confront the most basic questions about agency and responsibility. How can agency and responsibility be salvaged from the challenges of these catastrophic historical events?

Books (references)
Arendt, Hannah. Totalitarianism. Part Three of The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harvest, 1968.

Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring. Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Fanon, Frantz. Wretched of the Earth. Grove, 1986.

Kovaly, Heda Margolius. Under a Cruel Star. Holmes & Meier, 1986.

Please give me Authors, page #s and Chapter #s next to your quotes so I can easily find them in my books in case my books are different editions.