Id the First World War result in a Social delugein Britain?
Notes to consider:
I have provided several notes on the topic from a lecture which will hopefully shed some light. Whilst the notes speak generally on the effect DURING the war, please include its effect DURING and AFTER in the essay.
War struck a huge dent in male population & presence in society
skilled labour deserted industry for battlefield
Was the great war an accelerator of change?
1.War & state intervention:
minimal govt. interference
-however, during 1st world war intervention was widespread
financial and export sectors hugely controlled
A. Emergency legislation
B. ministry of munitions
-suspended trade union rules
-introduced labour dilution
-jan 1916 military conscription
-Britain resisted this for 2 years after war began
D. A legacy for state intervention?
1920 unemployment & insurance act.
2. The effect of the war on living standards? Use Jay Winter here.
A. economic situation
-war allowed huge employment opps
-those in labour possessed invaluable skills
-economic controls led to a wage rise
b. food & drinks
-rationing levelled standards of nutrition among classes
soldiers and infant welfare
living standards increased, life expectancy increased, infant mortality sunk, poverty sunk.
-War accelerated the processes mentioned above.
3. Aristocracy and landed elite
-rise of income tax
the rise of the businessman
Consequences? 8% of total income earned by rich would see a decrease.
hostility saw an attack on aristocratic power.
4. Labour aristocracy
-Nobilityamong the lower classes
-skilled workers made few economic advances
-unskilled labour benefitted greater in the redistribution of wages
Causes? Dilution & redistribution of wages
5. Overall class structure
-greater working class cohesion
6. Women and war
Employment of women? effect on the advance of female suffrage?
Women casual labourers.
-improvements allowed women to earn 3X as much as previously
-able to nurse at the front line
-women shared in an emancipation
A progressive force in womens lives?
however, war halted womens causes. remained Mothers& Homemakers”
-decline in male and female relationship. anti-female feeling among returning men.
7. Social implications (use Marwick here if possible)
-people had to witness amputees and shell sock in society
-victorian notion of the stiff upper lip had been exposed
-men shown to be vulnerable
These are the books I would like to be referenced from and quoted.
A. Marwick, The Deluge: British Society and the First World War (1991)
J.M. Winter, The Great War and the British People (1985)
A. Marwick, Total War and Social Change (1985)
S. R. Grayzel, Womens Identities at War (1999)
A. S. Millward, The Economic Effect of the Two World Wars on Britain (1984)