International Politics] Explain why foreign aid does not work as intended in Competitive, Individualistic, Cooperative views.

Explain why foreign aid does not work as intended in Competitive (realists), Individualistic (neo-liberal), Cooperative views.



The tragedy of international aid is that no clear relationship exists between giving money and delivering higher economic growth in developing countries.  Most aid-receiving transition countries [are] a disaster . Nations in the world annually donate billions of dollars in foreign aid to encourage development and reduce poverty in developing countries; yet, there is no sign of its effectiveness. And furthermore, studies show that it has corrupted governments and encouraged private sectors in the economy. A paradox lies in the fact that the aid-donor countries are in fact part of the corrupt system, and they continue spending their money to be no help or sometimes even to worsen the situation in developing countries. Poorest countries often get less than countries that have better economy. It is clear that aid has not been spent on the way it was intended. Aid agencies and rich countries find it easy to blame the inefficiency of poor countries for aid failures as opposed to  rich country politicking, inefficient donor bureaucracies, and the dysfunctional operations of the global aid cartel . Three major political scientist views, competitive, individualistic, and cooperative view assume every nation s different objectives of economic aid that hint on why the current international aid regime is doomed to fail.

The competitive view argues that the narrow objectives of nations, which concern power distribution, and  identify negatively with each other s security so that ego s gain is seen as alter s loss . Under an anarchic system, negative identification constitutes a system of  realist power politics that makes individual states to worry about relative gains. Collective action is nearly impossible because each sector in the system is selfish, and constantly struggles to win over each other. The purpose of rich countries giving aid then, in a competitive view is to simply  self-help . Giving aid to certain countries will benefit themselves by making allies, encouraging open markets to create strategic economic relationships, and so on. The states will help others only when the action is not harmful to themselves, and are very cautious of giving out aids that will significantly increase other states power.

In the individualistic system, states are indifferent to the relationships they have with each other in international politics. This constitutes  neo-liberal systems in which states still are self-regarding about their security but are concerned more primarily of absolute gains, rather than relative gains. They are less anxious about power distribution in the system, and thus collective action is more possible. States will not care about others as long as their own situation is stable. And their objectives in giving aid would be to essentially  help oneself by helping others ; providing new markets, improving the self-image by giving aid that would ultimately benefit other areas in the future, assuaging domestic demand for democratic accountability, and so on.

Both competitive and individualistic systems contrasts with the cooperative system. States perceive security and well being of each as a responsibility of all. Helping other countries is necessary to build a stable world community that will benefit everyone. It aims to make allies, prevent humanitarian disaster, and promote well being of the world populace and health improvement.