Iscuss some cultures that resist Mcdonaldization

You can use any sources that you want! Just make it good and presentable.

Here are some cultures against it

Rationalized systems not always rational.

Can also foster creativity and community, sharing: com

Verbal and visual, but creators are disembodied.

A. Birmingham School

a. Initially valorized the working class culture (supposed to lead to Marxian revolution).

b. See mass culture as integrating the working class into capitalist society, creating new capitalist hegemony.

c. Later, valorized resistant moments in media culture and audience interpretation as forming individual identities separate from capitalist hegemony.

Example: The punk-grunge movements that rebel against the establishment but make use of mass media and communication as a means of spreading their movements influence would be praised by the Birmingham School.

Jihad: According to Benjamin Barber, jihad is & fighting against the tide of internationalism and the eroding of individual cultures. It is a war that is not an instrument of policy but and expression of the desire to retain ethnic, racial, tribal or religious identity.

Islam associates McDonaldization with American foreign policy ventures. It is one source of their resentment toward the west.

History of the region: Great site: Foreign Policy in Focus:


U.S. opportunistic; gave arms to the Mujahedin in order to foil Russians. Payback for Vietnam when Russia supported the Vietcong.

Provided Stinger Missiles: shoulder held anti-tank/jet/helicopter weapons. Light and cheap.

After Soviets left, U.S. tried to backpedal; retrieve Stingers, prevent export of arms and Islamist ideology.

By then, Taliban too strong, too difficult to remove.

Saudi Arabia:

1945: F.D. Roosevelt made a deal with King Abel -Aziz: Open access to Saudi oil in exchange for protection from enemies inside and outside their borders.

At same time, Saudi s practice Wahabbism: a reactionary, very conservative interpretation of the Koran. Saudi s fund this type of religious education all over the region. Often the only education. Study only the Koran, no technical education. Fuels backwardness and fundamental Islamic views, hate for modernity. Petro dollars from the U.S. its main support.

Now religious groups like al Qaeda calling Saudi s corrupt because of their relationship to the U.S.

Osama bin Laden from the second most powerful family. He wanted to play a big role in the family business, but was rejected by the family. Partly, he is playing out his rejection on the world stage.

15 of the 19 hijackers on 9-11 were Saudi.


1953: CIA organized the overthrow of the country s constitutional government. Leader Mossadegh, had leftist leanings) installed the Shah of Iran.

Kissenger and Nixon wanted Iran to be a powerful ally like Israel, but they couldn t afford weapons, so Kissenger told them to form OPEC, raise the price of oil to pay for weapons.

CIA taught Shah s secret police to torture. Produces a religious backlash. Khomeni comes back from France and leads an uprising. Shah had repressed both secular and religious groups, so there was no secular opposition to Khomeni.

Shah ousted, gets sick and U.S. gives him asylum. Religious group takes hostages; 444 days. Carter loses to Reagan, some say as a result of the Iran-Contra deal; weapons for hostages.

So, in addition to our rationalized systems seeping throughout the world s cultures, and our liberal media, the U.S. government has increased anger and resentment because of their policy decisions aimed at protecting access to foreign oil.

My Son the Fanatic: Scenes 8-10, 16? Scenes 1,2, 4.

Ethnic cleansing in our own backyard.