Iscuss the history, human rigths and Ethics of the Individual Mandate of the Affordable Care ActObamacare

Foundations of Public Health Assignment 2
2-5 page response (references can go on page 6)

All public health policy determinations, issues, and debates involve interplay between values and science. Sometimes these values are implicit, sometimes explicit. As you did for the first assignment, take an example from what you have learned after the first studio in the Core curriculum and discuss, as you would for an educated layperson, how public health ethics, bioethics, and/or human rights perspective and principles informed a public health policy determination, issue, or debate. Recognizing that, depending on your selected example, it may be more difficult than it was in the first assignment, locate the example in its historical context. You may want to question the policy determination, issue, or debate based on central principles of ethics or human rights. In any case, be explicit about which principles you are using in response to this question.

I want to write about the individual mandate of the Affordable Care Act-

History-talk about how in the 19th century public health was focused on the medical policing of the environment, sanitation, quarantine, water and sewage and infectious disease such smallpox, yellow fever, typhus and cholera. In the 21st century Public Health has switched from the environment to the individual and leads us to think about the right of all individual to get health care. In this context give a brief history of Affordable Care Act.

Human Rights: Declaration of Alma Ata stated that health is a fundamental human right.
How the biggest challenge to equal access is providing coverage for the poor. The individual mandate is particularly aimed at low-and middle-income people to make sure they obtain insurance coverage. The individual mandate make sure most people have health insurance, creating a large pool of healthy customers that drives down premium costs. Talk about the comparison of Broccoli and health. Justice Antonin Scalia of the Supreme court made an analogy that broccoli is like health care. However, As Paul Krugman and many other economist have pointed out that people who choose not to buy or cannot afford to broccoli do not drive up its cost and make it unaffordable to those who need and want it. But all of us who need and want health insurance pay for those who do not have it. Everyone, sooner or later, gets seriously ill or injured. The uninsured patient comes to the hospital and in many cases incurs costs running to the hundreds of thousands of dollars. The hospitals, unable to absorb those costs and survive financially, shift costs to those who are insured by raising their rates for everything from room charges to every diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The health insurance company, faced with paying for those claims, raises its premiums. Whether we are publicly or privately insured, we all pay more, and the national cycle of escalating health care costs goes on. Thatas not broccoli; itas interstate commerce. At its root, the use of this false broccoli argument is an attack on the concept of a common good, the reality that we are all in this together, and the idea that the government has a legitimate stake in the health of our population.

Ethics: This one should cover majority of the Paper: Talk about the opposing views to individual mandate not just listing what they are: For those in favor think explicit view of paternalism such as the helmet law that when individual suffers an accident the community also suffers since individual do not live in a vacuum, tax payers money is going to be spents. Also implicitly how people will be affected emotionally. For those who oppose, think about personal freedom/liberty can quote Mills that is forcing individuals against their will to get healthcare.