Iscuss the role of university research in innovation in the knowledge economy

QUESTION Discuss the role of university research in innovation in the knowledge economy

ESSAY WRITING
Your essay needs a title which should be accurate about the content of the essay, and short.

Please use at least a 12 point font for your coursework, and use double spacing to enable comments to be written on your work for the purposes of feedback.

You MUST reference your sources and include a bibliography in your essay or you will lose marks (normally to a maximum of 10 marks if this is entirely inadequate).

Essay structure:
a? You need an introduction, which states what question(s) is(are) being addressed in the essay, and why it is interesting or important.
a? Indicate to the reader in the introduction what the structure of the essay will be.
a? Sub-headings are often useful as a guide to the reader, too.
a? You need to sum up an argument before going on to the next section, or start a new section with a summary of what has been argued so far. This gives a logical progression to your essay, and helps the reader keep up with the thread of your argument.
a? Numbered points and/or bullet points are acceptable in moderation, but the essay should be written mostly in continuous prose.
a? It is essential to summarise what you have argued in your essay at the end, and to have a conclusion. This is your last chance to tell your reader your point of view.

It is acceptable academic practice to use a?wea? even if you are the sole author, e.g. a?In the next section, we shall examine a¦..a?. You can also say a?I shall arguea¦a?, or use the form a?This paper will show thata¦.a?.

Write abbreviations (such as initials) in full the first time you use them, e.g. National Cancer Institute (hereafter NCI). Define the way in which you are using a term that might have several meanings to the reader (e.g. innovation, globalisation, competitiveness). Do not use slang or informal language in academic work. Do not use abbreviations such as isnat, donat, wouldnat a write in full is not, do not, would not.

A common mistake by native English speakers is in the use of the apostrophe. To indicate the possessive singular you need to use as and possessive plural sa (e.g. a?the companyas strategy wasa¦a?, or a?managersa interests area¦a?) or you may confuse the meaning of what you are saying. The only exception is its and itas where the apostrophe indicates a missing letter. Itas is short for it is or it has (e.g. itas been argued by Nelson thata¦), so should not appear in your essays (use in the longer form). The possessive of a?ita? is a?itsa? without an apostrophe, e.g. a?the company publishes its balance sheet every yeara?.

Footnotes and references:
When you write essays (or dissertations, or academic papers) you must justify the claims you make. This is so that others can verify your arguments later, and is correct academic practice. You will lose marks if you do not do this in your essays. Avoid a?it is saida¦a? or a?some people arguea¦a? a discuss the specific arguments of named authors. Avoid long quotes from a publication a they suggest you cannot be bothered to explain your thoughts, or have not fully understood the author you are quoting.

To justify an argument or claim in your essay, you can cite experimental/ empirical data, if you have done experiments or empirical research that can be used in this way. Or you can provide statistical information, quote statements made by experts, or cite various arguments from publications or other peopleas experimental data. In all these cases (except your own experimental or empirical material, where relevant, which is presented in the way you will have learnt in research methodology or practical classes) you have to show where you obtained this material. It is not good enough simply to list at the end of the essay the books and articles you consulted: you must indicate in the text where you used them.

You can do this:

either by inserting a number into your text where you make the claim or argument, and then list the numbers at the end. Against each number should be a reference to the publication where you found the material. You can do this in MS Word using footnotes from the insert menu (then change it to endnotes). This has the advantage that Word will allow you to add new notes or references, or cut and paste existing ones, automatically renumbering the list of references.

or instead of a number, put in brackets the name of the author you are citing, plus the date of the publications (e.g. Walsh 1996). At the end of the essay, list these authors in alphabetical order, plus the full reference to their publication.

Each reference should take the following form:

Journal papers:
Authoras name, authoras initials, year: title of paper, title of journal in italics, volume number in italics, page numbers, e.g. Walsh, V., 1996: Design, innovation and the boundaries of the firm. Research Policy, 25, 509-529.

Chapters in books:
Authoras name, authoras initials, year: title of book chapter. In editoras initials, editoras name (ed) Title of book in italics, publisher, place of publication, pages where the paper appears, e.g. Zimny, Z. and Mallampally, P., 2002: Internationalisation of services: are the modes changing?, in Miozzo, M. and Miles, I. (eds.) Internationalization, Technology and Services, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp. 87-114.

Books authored rather than edited:
Authoras name, authoras initials, year: Title of book in italics, name of publisher, place of publication, e.g. Freeman, C. and Soete, L., 1997: The Economics of Industrial Innovation, Pinter Publishers, London.

In addition, you need to indicate the page to which you are referring (unless it is a general argument throughout the book), especially where you are using a direct quote from an author, or citing a specific figure or set of data.

References to web pages:
If the reference is to published material that you have accessed via the internet, use the above system. Otherwise give the exact page number, rather than a general web site address, i.e. everything the reader needs to type in the address space, to get to the exact page of your reference. You also need to add the date you accessed this web page. For example, Du Pont 2002: 1980-Today, New Crop Varieties, History of Biotech, 1980.html, accessed on Sept 22, 2002.