Issertation Topic:Edible Vaccines,Problems and prospects.

Dissertation Plan-BSc Biotechnology
Topic: Edible Vaccines, problems and prospects
7000 words
Please follow the plan below:
Introduction
-What are vaccines? Aim of vaccination. Why to use vaccines?
-Describe different types of licenced human vaccines (a)Live attenuated,b) toxoid, c)subunit,d) combination,e) inactivated whole organisms). Make a table with the basic characteristics of the above different types
-Development of vaccines. Steps from laboratory to the market (Briefly)
-Which is the current administration? (injection)
-Advantages and disadvantages of current administration(easily produced?,cost,safety,reactogenicity)
-Possible alternatives (mucosal, oral/edible vaccines)
Main Body
-Edible Vaccines. What are they? What is the need?
-Plant derived vaccines. Explain and describe the construction of plant derived vaccines. Give examples. Mention things like gene manipulation in crops (potato, banana, tobacco) Make a diagram showing the procedure of constructing plan derived vaccines.
-Advantages and disadvantages of Edible vaccines. Problems to overcome (Suitable for rare diseases, oral activity-safety/Heat stability, reduction in production costs, Plants can be easily reproduced as compared to animals, used as a system for vaccines production) (biosafety, Vaccine potency)
-Current research. Diseases that can prevent and treat. (HIV, malaria, Hepatitis)
-Why pharmaceutical companies do not have any great development about edible vaccines? (Doubts about the potential for significant return on investment, uncertainties in the regulatory processes for licensure, limited human clinical trial data that establish required dosages, timing of delivery and evaluation of possible adverse immunological effects) Explain the above reasons and you may find more.
Conclusion
-Express opinion about the development of edible vaccines and the potential
Use of them.(Very useful and helpful. Maybe we need more research in order to produce commercially plant derived vaccines.) Mention briefly any drawbacks of edible vaccines. Also mention in what stage are now edible vaccines. Any field trials?
REFERENCES
You have to find mainly research papers and not a lot of reviews. You can of course use some reviews. You can use and the following papers, books. You can also find papers at nature biotechnology Journal.
The idea about the topic is from the paper: Vaccine manufacturing: challenges and solutions. Jeffrey B Ulmer, Ulrich and Rino Rappuoli. Nature biotechnology,volume 24, number 11, November 2006. (SEE ESPECIALLY PAGE 1382)
Use also book New generation vaccines from Myron Max Levine.
You can also use :Plants and human health in the twentyfirst century (Review paper)from IIYA RASKIN,DAVID M.Ribnicky..) Trends in Biotechnology vol 20,no 12,December 2002)
Vaccine antigen production in transgenic plants: strategies, gene constructs and perspectives F Sala, M Manuela Rigano, A Barbante, B Basso, AM a¦ Vaccine, 2003 a Elsevier.
Immunogenicity in humans of an edible vaccine for hepatitis B
pnas.org Y Thanavala, M Mahoney, S Pal, A a¦ Proceedings of the a¦, 2005 National Acad Sciences
A plant-derived edible vaccine against hepatitis B virus
fasebj.org J Kapusta, A Modelska, M Figlerowicz, T Pniewski, M a¦ The FASEB Journal, 1999 a FASEB
Plants for delivery of edible vaccines
chemistrycorner.info AM Walmsley, CJ Arntzen Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2000 a Elsevier
Medical molecular farming: production of antibodies, biopharmaceuticals and edible vaccines in plants
uni-halle.de H Daniell, SJ Streatfield, K Wycoff Trends in Plant Science, 2001 a Elsevier

General Information
Students are normally expected to begin working on a general survey of the
related research literature at the earliest possible stage of their research. This
is a preparatory stage and ranges far wider in scope and quantity than the
final dissertation. Your survey (which exists in writing only in your notes)
should help you in several ways, such as:
i ” i to decide on the issues you will address;
i ” i to become aware of appropriate research methodologies;
i ” i to prepare you for the critical analysis aspects of the dissertation.
You may feel that you are not yet in a position to criticise the work of
experienced researchers on the basis of your own knowledge of the topic or
of research methodology. However, for some research studies, some critical
comments may already be available from other established researchers (often
in reviews or published comments on the topic).
Remember that the dissertation is not a record of what I have read. If your
problem is how to choose what to leave out, one way might be to focus on the
most recent papers. You should normally aim to include key studies that are
widely cited by others in the field, however old they may be. Where there are
several similar studies with similar findings, you should review a
representative study that was well designed.
When you are reading, it is helpful to have some specific questions in mind as
you read. These may be quite general (Have there been any specific studies
on the role of protein x in the nucleus?”) or more specific, (a?Are these results
comparable with those of the Japanese study using the same reagents?”).
These sorts of questions will help you concentrate and deal with the material
in an active manner. If you are looking for specific information, you dont need
to summarise the whole article or book.
Keeping a list of questions in mind a these will sharpen your analytical skills
and help you keep an objective outlook on your material. For example,
i ” i What were the authors trying to discover?
i ” i Why is this piece of research important?
i ” i What was measured?
i ” i How were the data collected?
i ” i What were the results?
i ” i What do the authors conclude and to what do they attribute their
findings?
i ” i Are the conclusions drawn from the data convincing?
i ” i What did these results add to the field?
i ” i How can these results be used by biotechnology companies?
i ” i Are these methodologies cost effective?
6
When results are conflicting, you might find it useful to ask the following
questions:
i ” i How similar were the experimental approaches used?
i ” i Were the variables measured in the same or different ways?
i ” i How were the results evaluated?
These questions will form the basis of your dissertation. Asking them as you
read will tend to slow your reading process down, because you will be thinking
as you go. However, doing your critical work early will make the process of
writing a dissertation much easier. If you take comprehensive notes in your
own words as you read and think you will have done the really hard work
before you start to write.
Remember to read with a purpose: you need to summarize the work you
read but you must also decide which ideas or information are important to
your dissertation (so you can emphasize them), and which are less important
and can be covered briefly or left out. You should also look for the major
concepts, conclusions, theories, arguments etc. that underlie the work, and
look for similarities and differences with closely related work. This is difficult
when you first start reading, but should become easier the more you read in
your area.
Readability
It is important to make your text readable. It can help to ask a friend to
comment on a late draft because it is not always easy for the writer to spot the
problems that readers may have.
Your dissertation should a?tell a storya in the sense that you should a?set the
scenea (and grab the readeras attention) at the start, then try to lead the reader
as smoothly as possible from point to point, working up to some genuine
conclusions at the end. Not many of us can write like this at the first attempt,
but a dissertation can be gradually edited into this form. Check in particular
that there are no sudden jumps from one point to another.
You should 1.5 or double-space yo