Istory (access to humanities and social science)

ACCESS TO HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE.
Childhood: history assignment.
Aim: to identify and analyse the experiences of, and response to, working class children in the 19th century.
Assignment brief
In your assignment you should do the following
” Describe factors that shaped responses to child labour and education provision for the poor in the 19th century.
” Evaluate a range of primary sources.
” Demonstrate an appreciation of changing responses to childhood in the 19th century
” Make appropriate use of secondary sources
” Provide appropriate evidence to support your ideas

write a Mini essay question (600 words)
” Why was education made compulsory for the children of the poor in 1880? You can also use the book called(THE RESPONSE TO CHILD LABOUR 1780-1850)

Istory (access to humanities and social science)

This is the reading that came with (part 1 questions)
Michael saddler (MP) 1832
The idea of treating children, and especially children of the poorabove all, the children of the poor, imprisoned in factoriesas free agents, is too absurd.. the protection of poor children and young persons from theses hardships and cruelties to which their age and condition have always rendered them peculiarly liable, has ever been held one of the first and most important duties of every Christian legislature. Our own has not been mindful in this respect; and it is mainly owing to the change in circumstances that many of its humane provision have been rendered inoperative, and that present measure has come most necessary...
The overworking of these children occasion a weariness and lethargy which it is impossible always to resist: hence, drowsy and exhausted, the poor creatures fall too often among the machinery, which is not in many instances sufficiently sheathed; when their muscles are lacerated, their bones broken, or their limbs torn off, in which case they are constantly sent to them infirmaries to be cured, and if crippled for life, they are turned out and maintained at the public cost; or they are sometimes killed upon the spot..
Then in order to keep the children aware, and to stimulate their exertions, means are made use of, to which I shall avert.. sir, children are been beaten with thongs prepared for the purpose. Yes the females of this country, no matter whether children grown upI hardly know which is the more disgusting outrageare beaten upon the face, arms and bosom-beaten in your free market of labour, as you term it, like slaves. These are the instruments-( here the honourable member exhibited some black, heavy, leathern thongsone of them fixed in a sort of handle, the smack of which, when struck upon the table, resounded through the house). They are quiet equal to breaking an arm, but that the bones of the young are plaint. The marks, however, of the thong are long visible; and the poor wretch is flogged, I say like dog, by the tyrant overlooker. We speak with execration of the cart-whip of the west indiesbut let us see this night an equal feeling rise against the factorythong of England.
I wish I could bring a group of these ones to that barI am sure their silent appearance would plead more forcibly on their behalf than the loudest eloquence... At this late hour, while am thus feebly, but earnestly, pleading the cause of these oppressed children, what numbers of them are still tethered to their toil, confined in heated rooms, bathed in perspiration, stunned with the roar of revolving wheels, poisoned with noxious effluvia of grease and gas, till at last, weary and exhausted, they turn out, almost naked, into the inclement air and creep, shivering to bed from which a reley of their young worker have just risen.

Richard Oastler 1831
The immediate circumstances which led my attention to the fact was a communication made to me by a very opulent spinner (Mr John wood of Horton Hall, Bradford). That was the regular custom to work children in factories 13 hours a day, and only allow them half an hour for dinner, and that in many factories they were worked considerably more.. from that moment which the 29th of September 1830, I have never ceased to use every legal means, which I had it in my power to use, for the purpose of emancipating these innocent slave..
The demoralizing effects of the system are as bad, I know it, as the demoralized effects of slavery in the West Indies. I know that there are instances and scenes of the grossest prostitution amongst the poor creatures who are victims of the system, and in some cases are the object of the cruelty and rapacity and sensually of their masters. These things I never dared to publish, but the cruelties which are inflicted personally upon the little children, not to mention the immensely long hours which they are subject to work, are such as I am very sure would disgrace a west Indian plantation...
It is almost the general system for the little children in these manufacturing village to know nothing of their parents at all excepting that in the morning very early, at 5 O clock, very often 4, they are awaked by human being that they are told is their father, and are pulled out of bed (I have heard many score of them give an account of it) when they are almost asleep, and lesser children are absolutely carried on the backs of the older children asleep to the mill, and they see no more of their parents, generally speaking, till they go home at night, and are sent to bed.

Williams Cobbett 1833
sir, I will make but one observation upon subject, and that is this: that this reformed house has, this night, made a discovery greater than all former houses of commons have ever made, even if all their discoveries could have been put into one... we have this night discovered, that the shipping, the land, and the bank and its credit, are all nothing compared with a labour of three hundred thousand little girl in Lancashire! Aye, when compared with only an eighth part of the labour of these three hundred thousand little girls, from whose labour, if we only deduce two hours a day, away goes the wealth, away goes the capital, away go the resources, the power, and glory of England.

The main question.
ACCESS TO HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCE.
Childhood: history assignment.
Aim: to identify and analyse the experiences of, and response to, working class children in the 19th century.
Assignment brief
In your assignment you should do the following
” Describe factors that shaped responses to child labour and education provision for the poor in the 19th century.
” Evaluate a range of primary sources.
” Demonstrate an appreciation of changing responses to childhood in the 19th century
” Make appropriate use of secondary sources
” Provide appropriate evidence to support your ideas


Exploration of attitudes and arguments, Part 1 question (350 words)
With close reference to the extracts from the speeches and writings of Michael Sadler, Richard Oastler and Williams Cobbett, and using your wider knowledge of the subject, present an historical analysis of the motives, attitudes and arguments of middle-class factory reformers in the first half of the 19th century.
You might consider some of the following:
” The range of arguments and ideas
” The importance of language in expressing attitudes
” Individual and/or class motives or priorities
” What was the motivation of the reformers?


Mini essay, part 2 question(600 words)
” Why was education made compulsory for the children of the poor in 1880? You can also use the book calledTHE RESPONSE TO CHILD LABOUR 1780-1850