Luride Varnish and how often general and pediatric dentist use them and how they feel about pediatricians applying them

Here is the survey this is based on and the other documents. If you need more I will send it to you.

Fluoride Varnish Survey

Fluoride varnish can be applied to teeth of individuals to prevent caries. This is a survey of your use of fluoride varnishes and your opinion about physicians applying fluoride varnishes to prevent caries in infants and children.

Are you either a pediatric or general dentist?
a. Yes
b. No
If you answer no, please do not proceed, and return the blank survey to us.

1. Are you familiar with fluoride varnishes?
a. Yes
b. No

2. In Illinois and some other states, physicians administer fluoride varnish to prevent caries in infants and children. Were you aware of this?
a. Yes
b. No [Skip to question 5]

3. Which of the following best describes your opinion of physicians administering fluoride varnish to prevent caries in infants and children?
a. I agree with it.
b. I disagree with it.
c. I agree with it, but only under certain circumstances.
(Please describe those circumstances :_______________________________)
d. I have no opinion.

4. Why?

5. How often is fluoride varnish used in your practice?
a. Never [Skip to question 8]
b. Rarely (less than once a week)
c. Occasionally (about once a week)
d. Frequently (several times a week)
e. Regularly (at least daily)

6. On which of the following types of patients do you use fluoride varnish? Circle all that apply.
a. Children under 5 years of age
b. Children 5-10 years of age
c. Adolescents (11-17 years of age)
d. Adults (18-65 years of age)
e. Geriatric patients (over 65 years of age)
f. Special needs patients

7. For what purpose do you use fluoride varnish? Circle all that apply.
a. To prevent tooth decay
b. To treat hypersensitive teeth
c. As a cavity liner
d. To treat patients with xerostomia
e. To treat patients with exposed root surfaces

8. What is your gender? a. Male b. Female

9. With what racial or ethnic group(s) do you identify? Circle all that apply.
a. White
b. Black or African American
c. American Indian or Alaskan Native
d. Asian
e. Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
f. Hispanic/Latino
g. Other (Specify:_________________________)

10. What is the focus of your practice?
a. Pediatric Dentistry
b. General Dentistry
c. Other focus, please specify here:____________________(for example, geriatrics or special needs patients)

11. In what year did you graduate from dental school? _________________

12. Where did you complete your dental degree?
a. University of Illinois at Chicago
b. Southern Illinois University
c. Northwestern University
d. Loyola University at Chicago
e. Other (Specify:__________________________)

Thank you very much for you time!

Health care providers play an important role in anticipatory guidance in oral development, gum/tooth cleaning, caries transmission, and now in most states, fluoride varnish. In some cases, a family s pediatrician might be the only early dental prevention and education they receive. Although, the adoption of fluoride varnish in physician s office is crucial, my hypothesis states dentist would be less accepting of this change and when transformation did occur pediatric dentist will be more accepting based on their knowledge and more frequent use of fluoride varnish. I hypothesize the new idea has not diffused to them yet because they do not use the diffusion of innovation theory.

Diffusion of innovation was formalized by Everett Rogers in a 1962 book called Diffusion of Innovations.  Diffusion is the process in which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. (Rogers). Rogers stated that adopters of any new innovation or idea could be categorized as innovators (2.5%), early adopters (13.5%), early majority (34%), late majority (34%) and laggards (16%), based on a bell curve. Each adopters willingness and ability to adopt an innovation would depend on their awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption. Some of the characteristics of each category of adopter include:
· innovators venturesome, educated, multiple info sources, greater propensity to take risk
· early adopters social leaders, popular, educated
· early majority deliberate, many informal social contacts
· late majority skeptical, traditional, lower socio-economic status
· laggards neighbors and friends are main info sources, fear of debt
Rogers also proposed a five stage model for the diffusion of innovation:
1. Knowledge (pre-contemplation)learning about the existence and function of the innovation
2. Persuasion (Contemplation)becoming convinced of the value of the innovation
3. Decision (Preparation)committing to the adoption of the innovation
4. Implementation (Action)putting it to use
5. Confirmation (Maintenance)the ultimate acceptance (or rejection) of the innovation
Rogers theorized that innovations would spread through society in an S curve, as the early adopters select the technology first, followed by the majority, until a technology or innovation is common. Therefore, diffusion is a kind of social change, defined as the process by which alteration occurs in the structure and function of a social system. When new ideas are invented, diffused, and adopted or rejected, leading to certain consequences, social changes occur. This process is very important for the understanding of fluoride varnish being accepted by both the physicians and dentist.
Dr. Koerber initiated a survey as preparation for a grant application, which I would like to use as the data for my master s thesis. This survey includes questions such as: is the person completing the survey a general or pediatric dentist, are they familiar with fluoride varnish, do they know about physicians administering fluoride varnish in primary care offices, do they agree or disagree with the usage, and how often do they use fluoride varnish in their dental offices.
In conclusion, I hypothesize general dentist and pediatric dentists do not use the new innovation of fluoride varnish in primary care offices based on the theory of diffusion of innovation. Learning how to over come the hurdles and the rate of adoption to new ideas is an important philosophy in the diffusion process and will ultimately conclude to whether an innovation will be accepted or rejected. I also hypothesize that pediatric dentists will use fluoride varnish more than general dentists and that dentists will not be in favor of pediatricians applying varnish.

Fluoride Varnish Survey Study for Cook County Dentists


1. How often do dentist perform fluoride varnish
2. What patients are getting fluoride varnish
3. Reasons why dentist perform them (prevent tooth decay, hypersensitive teeth)
4. How they feel about Pediatricians applying them


Fluoride varnish is a lacquer containing 5% sodium fluoride that is painted onto all surfaces of the teeth. The purpose of applying fluoride varnish is to retard, arrest, and reverse the process of cavity formation. Infants and children with a moderate to high risk of developing caries is an indication of applying fluoride varnish. A child is considered at risk if he/she has one or all of the following conditions: had cavities in the past or has incipient lesions or stained fissures, if the child continues to use the bottle past one year of age or sleeps with a bottle containing liquids other than water, breast feeds on demand at night, has developmental disability, chronically uses high sugar medications, has family members with a history of caries, or engages in prolonged use throughout the day of a bottle or sippy cup containing liquids other than water. Fluoride varnish is not recommended for children with a low risk of cavity formation who consume optimally fluo