Nions and Cations in Biological Systems

Part A
Questions
1) Why the corresponding lines in the atomic spectra of hydrogen and deuterium appear at slightly different wavelengths?
2) How the 1s and 2p boundary surfaces have to be modified to show boundary surfaces for the 2s and 3p wave functions of a one-electron species?
3) The probability of finding the electron of a hydrogen atom in its ground state at a distance r from the proton is a maximum at r0.529 A. Explain why this statement is compatible with the occurrence of the maximum in the value of radial part of the wave function at r0.
4) Why is the atomic spectrum of an alkali metal so much more complex than that of hydrogen?
5) Using Aufbau principles, give the complete electronic configuration for the following: Ra, I, Ti, Hg, Ag, Co2+, Se2-,Ba2+, Cu2+.
6) With the help of Hundas rule work out the state symbols for the ground states of sulphur, chlorine, titanium, chromium and nickel.
7) Discuss the following observations:
The first ionization energies of boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and neon are 800, 1086, 1402, 1313, 1680, and 2080 KJ/mol respectively.
More energy is liberated when a gaseous chlorine atom combines with an electron than when a gaseous fluorine atom does so.
The van der Waalas radius of helium in the solid state is greater than that of neon.
8) Based on trends that are evident in orbitals with lower n value, sketch a) an approximate radial plot, b) an approximate radial distribution plot, and c) a rough contour diagram for a 4s orbital and a 4dxy orbital. Be sure to label axes, indicate wave function signs, and note any nodes.
9) How do you expect bond lengths to vary in dioxygen species O2,O2+, O2-?
Which of these species would you expect to be paramagnetic?
10) Ground state term symbols for diatomic molecules can be determined by methods based on the Russell-Saunders coupling scheme for atoms. Derive the ground terms for H2+, H2,C2,O2,and NO.
11) Predict the three dimensional shape of the following molecules: BeF42-,NF4+,SbCl5, H3O+, ClO2,I3-,ICl2+, BrF6+, IF6-.
12) Discuss the following observations: The molecule of TeCl4 has an appreciable dipole moment while SnCl4 does not.
13) A trigonal planar MX3 molecule belongs to the point group D3h. Make sketches of such a molecule to indicate the location of its ten symmetry elements. D3h has twelve symmetry operations, which are listed by class in the top row of the D3h character table. Indicate which operations are associated with each element.
14) Determine the point group classification for the following molecules. Use VSEPR theory when necessary to determine the shapes. Build molecules to help see the symmetry elements.
a) CH2Cl2
b) Diborane, B2H6 (each B is bonded to 4 H, two of which are bridging)
c) cyclohexane (chair configuration)
d) cyclohexane (boat configuration)
e) POCl3
f) PF5
g) a coffee cup with handle (no decorations)
h) Cr ( C6H6)2 ( the Cr is a?sandwicheda? between two parallel benzene rings,
which are staggered with respect to each other)
i) Cr ( C6H6)2 , if the two benzene rings are eclipsed
j) CBr4
k) a swastika
l) SF6
m) BeF2
n) a tennis ball
Part B
1) Describe the bases of the Ligand-field theory and its consequences in a transition
metal ion.
2) Discuss anticancer therapeutics agents.
3) What do you know about Menkesa disease and how we treat it.
4) Describe dioxygen transport in the hemoglobin-myoglobin family, hemocyanins
and hemerythrins proteins.