Nswer the following questions in one paragraph each

Answer THREE of the following questions in one paragraph each

1) In the essay a?Justified Bombingsa?, what does Mr. Takahashi believe is the reason that the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs on Japan?

2) According to a?Morality Reduced to Numbersa?, what is the Doctrine of Double Effect and does it apply to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

3) In a?The Biotech Revolutiona?, what are two possibly negative future developments that concern Dr. Michio Kaku?