Olon Cleansing: A consumer health issue
Consumer Health Issue Paper Due 6/10/11
I. FOCUS OF PAPER: Consumer Health
II. GUIDELINES: (85 points)
A.Select any issue which would be included under the major focus.The introduction should include why this is an issue. (5 points)
B.Identify specifically how the issue affects all in society. Validate with relevant research studies, references, statistics, etc. (20 points)
C.Describe when and how this topic became a consumer health issue. (This means the historical perspective.) (20 points)
D.State societys current responses to this issue. Analyze the effectiveness of these responses. (20 points)
E.Emphasize the significant contribution(s) that nursing as a professional group had made or could make in influencing and implementing measures to impact on this consumer health issue. Include research, education and practice. (20 points)
III. GENERAL STRUCTURE: (15 points)
A.Develop the paper in an orderly fashion.Use subheadings for proper organization. (5 points) Content of the paper is limited to twelve pages in length exclusive of references.
B.Use the American Psychological Association Publication Manual, (APA), 6th ed. (10 points)
* Although some non-professional sources may be important in illustrating your consumer issue, all non professional sources should be discussed with the Faculty READER prior to inclusion in the paper. Example of nonprofessional sources are: magazine articles; internet brochures, internet sources other than published manuscripts in professional journals, Wikipedia, healthcare provider websites, newspaper articles, etc. Professional sources, especially medical and nursing sources is recommended. Internet sources should not be more than three.
Submit one copy of the first page of each article in your reference list with the final paper.
*Bonus: Up to 5 additional points will be added to the final paper score for demonstration of creativity ideas or innovative approaches. Former students included cartoons, illustrations, posters, presentation formats, development of client education materials, etc. that accompany their paper as an appendix. These additions must be logically linked and discussed in the paper.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical that has been used in everyday products such as baby bottles and soda cans. Research studies have shown this chemical to cause adverse health effects on fetuses, infants, children, and adults. While BPA has been beneficial to the manufacturing industry for the last 60 years, its potential to be harmful to health cannot be overlooked. This consumer health issue is in the forefront of the minds of many consumers, media, and government. The nursing profession has also been a major advocate for change and continues to support the elimination of harmful chemicals.
Bisphenol A and its Use in Consumer Products
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used to produce hard and sturdy polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Its use is widespread among a variety of different consumer, medical and industrial products. For example, polycarbonate plastics are used in products such as: baby bottles, infant formula containers, toys, pacifiers, plastic dinnerware, water coolers, water bottles, microwaveable food containers, and medical equipment. Epoxy resins are used as a lining in metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and enamels, and water main pipes (National Toxicology Program, 2010; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). In addition, BPA is also used in thermal paper products such as a?sales-receipts, self-adhesive labels, lottery tickets, and fax papera? (NTP, 2010, p.1). It is estimated that global production of BPA is over 6 billion pounds annually and continuing to rise (Vogel, 2009).
Despite how beneficial BPA is in regard to material production, its effects on the human body have been increasingly questioned and debated. To the human body, BPA is an endocrine-disruptor. a?Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances that act like hormones in the endocrine system and disrupt the physiologic function of endogenous hormonesa? (Chalupka, 2010, p. 168). It was once believed that low level exposure to this chemical would do little harm. Currently there is a concern among consumers and the government that BPA, even at low levels, may have adverse health effects that affect all generations from infants to adults.
BPA & its Affect on Society
In 2003-2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with 2,517 participants aged 6 years and older. Urine samples were collected and results concluded that 93% of the participants had measurable amounts of BPA in their urine. While this research does not delve into the varying levels of BPA in each participant it does speak to the mass exposure of the general population (CDC, 2010). It is clear that society as a whole is affected by BPA. People are exposed to BPA primarily through the food and beverages that are consumed. In addition to BPA exposure through diet, a?about 100 tons of BPA are released into the atmosphere each year by plastic manufacturers during production, resulting in air, water, and land contaminationa? (Krajac-Salva, 2009).
Exposing the New Generation
Many parents have unknowingly been exposing their infants and children to BPA. One way that may increase exposure is when products containing BPA are heated, are old, or have scratches on them allowing the chemical to leach out. For example, when sterilizing baby bottles the heat can cause the chemical to leach out and contaminate the formula. Infants are particularly at risk because their systems are still developing and their bodies are unable to metabolize this chemical at the same rate that adults can (Galvez, Graber, Sheffield, Forman, & Balk, 2009). Children are also exposed when playing with toys or pacifiers containing BPA (CDC, 2010). The following research studies have explored the effects of BPA on infants and children.
In September 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Development completed a review of the effects of BPA. The findings were largely based on evidence in experimental animal studies. The NTP used a scale consisting of five levels to denote their degree of concern. The scale levels consisted of: serious concern, concern, some concern, minimal concern, and negligible concern (NTP, 2010). The finalized report stated that the NTP had a?some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to BPAa? (NTP, 2010, p. 1). In addition, the NTP had a?minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females, in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to BPAa? (NTP, 2010, p. 1). The NTP report stated that it had only a?negligible concernsa? that BPA would adversely affect the offspring of women exposed during pregnancy and also that this chemical would harm adults who were not exposed to the chemical in their occupation (NTP, 2010).
In a research study titled, a?Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Early Childhood Behaviora? it was concluded that prenatal exposure to BPA may be linked to increased externalizing behavior (hyperactivity and aggression) in two-year olds, particularly in females. This finding was based on prenatal urine samples of 249 mothers during various stages of gestation and a behavior assessment on their offspring at two-years of age. There are some limitations to the study such as whether postnatal BPA exposure affected behavior. However, in regard to this study researchers are continuing to study the child participants to see if this behavior continues throughout childhood development (Braun, Yolton, Dietrich, Hornung, Ye, Calafat, & Lanphear, 2009). The implications of this st