Omparative analysis of General Motors Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp. in the light of Quality Circles

Main Body: The general structure of the main body should be:

Introduction
Literaure Review
Research Methodology
Findings
Discussion and/or conclusions

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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER :2 PAGES
LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER :32 PAGES
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHAPTER:1 PAGE
ANALYSIS CHAPTER: 15 PAGES
CONCLUSION:1 PAGE


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DEMONSTRATION OF THE DISSERTATION
Chapter 1
Introduction

Participative management has been broadly adopted as a strategy in Organizational development. This is because most people believe that participative management not only encourages workers to identify with their duties, but also improves their own performance as well as Organizational performance. It is a kind of management style in which the subordinates share a significant degree of decision making power with their superiors (Robbins, 1991).

Participative management is one of the most important as well as most widely utilized strategies for developing Organizations. Studies of group dynamics indicate that participative management encourages employees to contribute their knowledge and skills to companies, provides a better scheme for problem solving, strengthens the acceptability of decision making, reduces resistance to Organizational change and promotes employees commitment to Organizations (Tung, 1997).

However, the author believes that schemes of participative management are not applicable to all Organizations. The author hereby in this work refers to the owner of this dissertation. (Tannenbaum et al.,1961) stated that the effectiveness of participative management is contingent upon support from top management, appropriate Organizational culture, design of the management pattern, techniques to implement and employees interest and ability. Moreover, (French et al.,1960) argued that even the same scheme of participative management may have different outcomes under different cultural systems.

According to (Cotton et al.,1988), the patterns of participative management may be overviewed in the form of different activities such as goal setting, problem solving, direct involvement in work decisions, representation on policy making bodies and selecting new co-workers. However, this research work is limited to the discussion of problem solving activity, to be studied in the form of Quality Circles.

The researchers who undertook profound research on Quality Circles for over many years, strongly argued that although this technique has proved to be successful in Japan after its emergence following world war II, it eventually didn t work similarly in Western Countries. Therefore the main objective of this research work is to investigate and subsequently find logical reasons for the failure of QC technique in America, based on hypotheses. In addition, efforts have been imposed to gain a greater understanding on human resource practice.

The relationship between top management, middle management, facilitator, steering committee, trade union and Quality circle members enabled the author in framing the following hypotheses.
H1The greater the perceived level of the organizational culture, the higher the performance of Quality Circles.
H2The greater the perceived level of leaders involvement in Quality management, the higher the performance of Quality Circles.
H3The greater the perceived level of rewards, the higher the performance of Quality Circles.
H4The greater the perceived amount of communication, the higher the performance of Quality Circles.

However, before we could proceed with the above hypotheses the author believed that it is imperative to understand the underlying notion of Quality Circles and its contingent factors. These elements are discussed comprehensively in Literature review.






























Chapter 2
Literature Review
2.1. Introduction
Basically, the main purpose of literature review is to provide with background information on Quality Circles and how it exactly works in an Organization. In addition, different levels of management, associated with Quality circle members ranging from Top management to Subordinates are discussed at length. This is particularly done to identify their role in this problem solving activity.

Information obtained is mainly from 1980s and 1990s. The author believes that QCs is a historic term and it is no longer considered as trendy in today s generation. However, this type of problem solving technique is still treated as an integral part of human resource practice in many organizations and it is perceived as one of the important tools of Total Quality management (modified version of QCs).

2.2. Definition
 A small group of between three and twelve people who do the same or similar work, voluntarily meeting together regularly for about an hour per week in paid time, usually under the leadership of their own supervisor, and trained to identify, analyse, and solve some of the problems in their work, presenting solutions to management, and where possible, imp