Ompare and contrast how skinner and Harlow have used non-human animals in behavioural research .

write an essay 1500 words Compare and contrast how skinner and Harlow have used non-human animals in behavioural research .two process words: compare and contrast Write an essay of 1500 words on:

Compare and contrast how Skinner and Harlow have used non-human

animals in behavioural research.

Process and content words

In this question there are two process words: a?comparea and a?contrasta.

Compare requires you to identify some ways in which the work of Skinner

and Harlow is similar. Contrast asks you to identify differences between

their approaches to investigating ini¬ uences on behaviour. However, the

process of comparing and contrasting does not simply mean identifying and

describing these similarities and differences. It also involves constructing an

argument that points to the importance and/or implications of the comparison

or contrast being made. More importantly, your argument should be

supported, where possible, with evidence from Skinneras and Harlowas


The i¬?rst step in addressing the question is to select the material that you will

use in your essay, that is, identify and make notes about some similarities

and differences in the work of Skinner and Harlow
There is no need to have equal

numbers of similarities and differences. You may i¬?nd it easier to identify

differences, but you must also include some similarities. In thinking about

the latter, donat be afraid of stating the obvious. If you i¬?nd this part

difi¬?cult, try asking yourself questions such as the following:

. What background or tradition of research did Skinner and Harlow come

from? Did they build on previous research (and how)?

. Skinner and Harlow were both studying behaviour but what were the

Different aims and topics of their research?

. Who or what were the subjects/participants in the research?

. What kind of data did they produce and how did they analyse them?

. How did this contribute to our understanding of learned behaviour and/or


. How has their work been evaluated? What criticisms have been made of

their research? Are there any ethical issues arising from the use of nonA­

human animals in doing research and are there any problems in

extrapolating results and interpretations from these two different studies

to human behaviour?

The next step is to select which points to use in your essay and to think

about how to incorporate them into an argument that demonstrates your

understanding of, and ability to analyse, the relevant material. If you are

unsure how to do this, revisit Online Activity 17: Constructing an argument.

Donat try to include every possible similarity and difference, and donat spend

too much of your essay describing the studies in detail. Instead, try to focus

on a smaller number of important similarities and differences that you can

elaborate on and support with examples. Creating a coherent answer is not

simply stating a number of different comparison points. The key to this

challenging writing skill is to:

. add a carefully constructed introduction and conclusion to your essay

. pay attention to signposting your argument, for example, tell your reader

if you are writing about a similarity or a difference

. use linking words and phrases that take you from one point to the next.

Donat forget to insert references in the text of your essay to support what

You say; and also give a reference list at the end of your essay. You should

Pay special attention to how you reference sources where you have read an

Account of a study or theory, but have not read the original (i.e. secondary


You have to :
Write in your own words
Check word count
The only references to use at this stage :

Toates F. (2012) a?Changing Behavioura, In Brace N. and Byford J. (eds) Investigating Psychology, Oxford, Oxford University Press/Milton Keynes, The Open University.

Custance D. (2012) a?Determined to love?a, In Brace N. and Byford J. (eds) Investigating Psychology, Oxford, Oxford University Press/Milton Keynes, The Open University.

Setting the assignment

There are a few points to note regarding the way in which you set out an


. Use a clear 12-point font and double spacing

. Number all pages.

. Keep within the word limit given, and note clearly, at the end of the

assignment, how many words you have used.

. Write out the question at the start of the assignment.