Ompare and contrast participatory design and action research as approaches to the design of human-centred technology

The subject should be human-computer interaction (HCI).
The situation is, I applied for a msc program of a TOP university in the UK and got a conditional offer. Below is their requirements:

As you are already aware, your offer is conditional on passing a qualifying essay at 2:1 standard (60%69% range) or above.

The word limit is 2500 words.

The essay question is: Compare and contrast participatory design and action research as approaches to the design of human-centred technology.”

The essay should discuss the work with respect to the literature in the area. We have listed some articles for your convenience, as well as a zip file containing these articles