Ompare and Contrast two theories of reflection.

The two I want to compare is John C and Gibbs G
2000 thousand words not including in the referencing. I forward you the paper guidence this explaines what should be done.

The Therapeutic Relationship FCMT 421

Essay Guidelines
Essay 1 is a a?compare and contrasta? essay. This is one of the first essay types in academic writing. The aim of writing a compare-contrast essay is to encourage you to engage in and develop critical thinking skills, to make connections between theories and views, and to go beyond merely describing and summarising what you read. Compare-contrast essays essentially train you to reflect and analyse, and develop a deeper understanding of the theories or concepts you are comparing and identify what is most important to each of them.
Whilst there are various ways in which you can present a compare-contrast essay, what is most important is that the essay should be structured and have a logical flow from one paragraph to the next.

Here is one way to present a compare-contrast essay:

The introduction is very important. It gives the reader a road map in that it tells the reader what to expect. The introduction should ideally give a little background to the topic (in this case reflective practice), tell the reader what the essay is about or what it will do, and will also reveal the main findings of your compare-contrast exercise. For example:

After providing a brief background to reflective practice and the fact that there are several theories and schools of practice, etc a¦ you will want to be more specific:

This paper will compare and contract two theories of reflection. The theories chosen are A (reference) and B (reference). Whilst these theories are similar in many ways, especially in relation to their purpose and stages of reflection, they have two major differences. Theory A differs from theory B primarily in the way in which the process of reflection is carried out a¦ etc.

The section will probably consist of 3-4 paragraphs and go through all (or at least 3) of the similarities between the two theories. In this section you are responding to the following questions:

What are the similarities between these two theories in respect to their:

Historical background: i.e. When was this theory formulated? By whom? Which school(s) of psychology influenced this theory? What is the philosophical underpinning?

Educational: There are many different educational theories. How do each of these consider the role of the learner and the student? Which theories are congruent with a?Reflective Learninga.

Relevance and application to healthcare: What are the similarities between the two theories in respect to applying them practically in patient care and self-care within the therapeutic relationship?

Personal Development: What are the similarities between the two theories in respect to applying them practically in oneas own personal development and growth? It has been suggested that reflective learning is a?Transformational Learninga a How is this? How does this approach to personal development differ from other approaches.

The section will probably consist of 3-4 paragraphs and go through all (or at least 3) of the differences between the two theories. Follow the format above.

Concluding Paragraph:
The purpose of conclusion is to wrap up everything.

So your essay structure might look something like this:

Paragraph 1: Introduction a road map for reader. This could be followed by a point-by point compare-contrast process.

Paragraph 2: Comparison: Criteria 1
Paragraph 3: Comparison: Criteria 2
Paragraph 4: Comparison: Criteria 3
Paragraph 5: Comparison: Criteria 4
Paragraph 6: Contrast: Criteria 1
Paragraph 7: Contrast: Criteria 2
Paragraph 8: Contrast: Criteria 3
Paragraph 9: Contrast: Criteria 4

Paragraph 8: Conclusion
The concluding paragraph is a well-written summary and wraps up the essay. Itas important to restate the main findings and two to three supporting ideas of how or why these conclusions were drawn. The conclusion should not however, be just a duplication of the introductory paragraph.
You donat have to follow this model. Many of you would have done compare-contrast essays and may prefer other models of comparative essay writing. Please feel free to use a model that works for you.

A compare-contrast rubric such as the one below is a well-used tool to capture the information you want to write about in your essay:

Theory A Theory B Similarity/Difference

Historical background

Early 1900s

Influenced by Freud (psychoanalysis) Late 1930s

Influenced by Skinneras Behavioural model D (difference)



Educational relevance and application to the reflective theories

Relevance and application to practitioner development
Relevance and application to personal development and growth

A venn diagram is another way to tease out the similarities and differences:

Some useful websites

Possible Authors to use in your essay.

a? This is not comprehensive and there are many others who could be referred to.
a? You do not need to use all of these authors.
a? Info is available on BlackBoard as follows:

Historical background:
Dewey J
Argyris C & Schon D
Habermas J
Kolb D
Schon D
Fay B
Wilber K

Ausubel DP
Bandura A
Brookfield SD
Brunner J
Honey P & Mumford A
Knowles M
Kolb D
Maslow A
Pavlov I
Rogers C
Skinner BF
Theories of Reflection

Schon D
Boud D, Keogh R & Walker D
Johns C
Gibb G
Driscoll J
Taylor B

Relevance and application to healthcare:
Boyd E & Fales A
Burnard P
Eraut M
Goleman D
Rolf G Freshwater D & Jasper M Professional Bodies Personal Development:
Burns S & Bulmann C
Claxton G
Daloz LA
Freire P
Mezirow J
Moon J
Dirkx JM

Assessment Methods and Weightings: Essay 50% Reflection 50%
In order to progress onto level 5 PD you must achieve a minimum mark of 30% in both components of the assessment

1. Essay 2,000 words +/10% 50%
Essay Title
a?Compare & contrast 2 theories of a?reflective practicea and explore how this approach to learning can enable development as a professional practitioner. You need to draw on historical, educational, healthcare & personal development theoriesa
Hand in date: 13/12/10 Return date: 19/1/11

Assessment Criteria (see appendix 2)
The essay will be assessed against the following criteria:
a? depth of knowledge & understanding
a? use of appropriate theory
a? presentation & structure
a? use of Harvard referencing