Ood Safety; Pests and Vectors; Air Quality

Air pollution is an environmental health problem in many cities throughout the world. Residents in an urban community through which a major freeway transportation route runs are suffering from a number of health effects. The local organization arranges for you, a health educator, to consult with and assist a nurse from a local community clinic in planning and implementing a program that will address reduction in exposure of the community, particularly children, to air pollution and thereby reducing the impact of air pollution in the community.

Write a 2-3 page paper in which you do the following:

1. Describe the common health problems associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution in urban settings.

2. Describe why children are more vulnerable to the effects of air pollutants.

3. Describe how you (as a Health Educator and consultant in this multi-disciplinary team), would assist the nurse to plan and implement a program that will reduce the exposure of this community to air pollution as well as reduce the impact of air pollution on the health of children. In your response, make sure to include preventive steps that can be taken by the community (home and school, for example) to reduce the exposure of children to air pollutants.

Required Readings
Altekruse S.F., Cohen M.L. and Swerdlow D.L. (2007). Emerging Foodborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(3): 285-293. Retrieved from the Web on 2/28/12 at 28/12 at 12 at 28/12 at 28/12 at /.epa.gov/pesticides/health/mosquitoes/

Ood Safety; Pests and Vectors; Air Quality

Course: Environmental Health and Safety

Food Safety

Question 1: There has been several complaints in your community about dirty restaurants. Several restaurants are no longer in business as a result of a television expose. You are the head of a citizen task force and have been asked to make recommendations for improved food safety. The members of the task force are at odds over which approach to food safety best serves the interests of the community. Please provide a response to the following questions:

a. Explain which of the following two approaches to enhance food safety would be more effective in the long run, a stronger enforcement program by the local health department, or a mandatory food safety training requirement for all restaurant employees.

b. Describe worker behaviors that may promote or compromise food safety.

Please be sure to justify your opinion with the literature.

Vectors

Question 2: Recently there has been numerous reports on increased mosquito bites in several neighborhoods in your community. Your staff has investigated these reports and have found them to be justified. As a matter of fact, there has been an increasing number of complaints that mosquitoes are preventing people from staying out in the early mornings and evenings. Additionally, the local health department has informed you that there has been an increase in reported cases of encephalitis and a few deaths related to West Nile Virus.

Unfortunately, your health department is very limited in its personnel and its financial resources and so therefore, you have to chose the most efficient methods to control this problem. Based on the information concerning mosquitoes in this scenario, respond to the following:

a. Describe the top one recommendation you would give to the public to prevent being bit by mosquitoes that may transmit West Nile Virus. Justify your choice.

b. Describe the top one recommendation you would give to the community to control the mosquito population in the community.

Please be sure to justify your opinion with evidence from the literature.

Assignment Expectations
Use information from the modular background readings as well as any good quality resource you can find.

LENGTH: 2-3 pages typed and double-spaced, in addition to a cover page.

The following items will be assessed in particular:

Precision: Each of the questions of the assignment is specifically addressed in the paper. The paper describes your method of choice to improve food safety in restaurants, worker behaviors that may enhance or compromise food safety, your recommendation to prevent mosquito bites, and your recommendation to control the mosquito population in a community with a health department that is limited in personnel and financial resources. The rationale of your choices is presented.

Clarity: The paper reads clearly, it is not confusing. It is well structured and grammatically correct.

Breadth: The paper presents appropriate breadth covering the questions of the assignment.

Depth: The paper thoroughly describes the tasks of the assignment. Your paper describes well the rationale behind your strategy of choice for improving food safety in restaurants. The paper includes examples of worker behaviors that enhance or compromise food safety. The paper describes well the rationales for your recommendation to reduce mosquito bites, and your recommendation to control the mosquito population.

Critical Thinking: The paper integrates your understanding of food safety principles and unsafe food handling practices by restaurant employees. The paper integrates your understanding of mosquito control to a community setting.

References: At least, two in-text citations are provided as well as a reference list provided at the end of your paper (APA formatting not required but highly recommended).

Ood Safety; Pests and Vectors; Air Quality

Write a 2 page paper in which you respond to the following two questions:

Food Safety
Question 1: There has been several complaints in your community about dirty restaurants. Several restaurants are no longer in business as a result of a television expose. You are the head of a citizen task force and have been asked to make recommendations for improved food safety. The members of the task force are at odds over which approach to food safety best serves the interests of the community. Please provide a response to the following questions:

a. Explain which of the following two approaches to enhance food safety would be more effective in the long run, a stronger enforcement program by the local health department, or a mandatory food safety training requirement for all restaurant employees.

b. Describe worker behaviors that may promote or compromise food safety.

Please be sure to justify your opinion with the literature.

Vectors
Question 2: Recently there has been numerous reports on increased mosquito bites in several neighborhoods in your community. Your staff has investigated these reports and have found them to be justified. In fact, there has been an increasing number of complaints that mosquitoes are preventing people from staying out in the early mornings and evenings. Additionally, the local health department has informed you that there has been an increase in reported cases of encephalitis and a few deaths related to West Nile Virus.

Unfortunately, your health department is very limited in its personnel and its financial resources. You have to chose the most efficient methods to control this problem. Based on the information concerning mosquitoes in this scenario:

a. Describe the top one recommendation you would give to the public to prevent being bit by mosquitoes that may transmit West Nile Virus. Justify your choice.

b. Describe the top one recommendation you would give to the community to control the mosquito population in the community.

Please be sure to justify your opinion with the literature.

Assignment Expectations
Use information from the modular background readings as well as any good quality resource you can find.

LENGTH: 2 pages typed and double-spaced, in addition to a cover page.

The following items will be assessed in particular:

Precision: Each of the questions of the assignment is specifically addressed in the paper. The paper describes your method of choice to improve food safety in restaurants, worker behaviors that compromise food safety, your recommendation to prevent mosquito bites, and your recommendation to control the mosquito population in a community with a health department that is limited in personnel and financial resources. The rationale of your choices is presented.

Clarity: The paper reads clearly, it is not confusing. It is well structured and grammatically correct.

Breadth: The paper presents appropriate breadth covering the questions of the assignment.

Depth: The paper thoroughly describes the tasks of the assignment. Your paper describes well the rationale behind your strategy of choice for improving food safety in restaurants. The paper includes examples of worker behaviors that compromise food safety. The paper describes well the rationales for your recommendation to reduce mosquito bites, and your recommendation to control the mosquito population.

Critical Thinking: The paper integrates your understanding of food safety principles and unsafe food handling practices by restaurant employees. The paper integrates your understanding of mosquito control to a community setting with practical limitations of resources that often face health departments

Ood Safety; Pests and Vectors; Air Quality

Write a 2-3 page paper in which you respond to the following two questions:

Food Safety
Question 1: There have been several complaints in your community about dirty restaurants. Several restaurants are no longer in business as a result of a television expose. You are the head of a citizen task force and have been asked to make recommendations for improved food safety. The members of the task force are at odds over which approach to food safety best serves the interests of the community. Please provide a response to the following questions:

Explain which of the following two approaches to enhance food safety would be more effective in the long run, a stronger enforcement program by the local health department, or a mandatory food safety training requirement for all restaurant employees.

Describe worker behaviors may promote or compromise food safety.

Please be sure to justify your opinion with the literature.

Vectors
Question 2: Recently there have been numerous reports on increased mosquito bites in several neighborhoods in your community. Your staff has investigated these reports and have found them to be justified. In fact, there have been an increasing number of complaints that mosquitoes are preventing people from staying out in the early mornings and evenings. Additionally, the local health department has informed you that there has been an increase in reported cases of encephalitis and a few deaths related to West Nile Virus.

Based on the information concerning mosquitoes in the scenario mentioned above:

Describe the recommendations you would give the public to prevent further spread of of West Nile Virus by mosquitoes.

Describe the recommendations you would give the community to control the mosquito population in the community.

Please be sure to justify your opinion with the literature.

The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control.

Foodborne diseases have a major public health impact (Table 1; 1). In the United States, each year foodborne illnesses affect 6 to 80 million persons, cause 9,000 deaths, and cost an estimated 5 billion U.S. dollars (2). The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing as newly recognized pathogens emerge and well-recognized pathogens increase in prevalence or become associated with new food vehicles (Table 2). In addition to acute gastroenteritis, many emerging foodborne diseases may cause chronic sequelae or disability. Listeriosis, for example, can cause miscarriages (3) or result in meningitis in patients with chronic diseases (3). Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of congenital malformation (4), and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection is a leading cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome, the most common cause of acute kidney failure in children in the United States (5). Salmonellosis can cause invasive disease (6) or reactive arthritis (7), and campylobacteriosis can lead to Guillain-Barre syndrome, one of the most common causes of flaccid paralysis in the United States in the last 50 years (8).

Table 1. Estimated number of illnesses and deaths per year caused by infection with selected foodborne bacterial pathogens, United States. (1-2)