Or new developments, should the access roads be supplied by a government agency, the developer,or both? If both, who should supply what?
Guidelines: please try to add information below to writing assignment.
Please donot restate or lift paragraphs from the web. please provide personal view points
Easy access to tourism destinations in terms of international transport
and facilities for easy movement within the destinations are generally
considered to be prerequisites for the development of tourism. In addition,
these two elements are best considered as complementary and a part of
a comprehensive communications system.
One of the forces that may impede the cohesiveness and
comprehensiveness of a communications strategy is the fragmentation of
responsibility for the various modes of transportation and the different route
systems and networks.
For planning and management purposes, transportation infrastructure
in the Asia-Pacific region can be seen as comprising:
(a) International air services and international airports;
(b) Domestic air services;
(c) Land transport systems and routes;
(d) Water transport.
(a) International air services
One of the controlling factors of the nature and magnitude of the
international visitor market is the availability of international air access.
The significant determinants of international visitor numbers using
international air services include flight schedules and frequency, seat capacity of aircraft on the routes, proportion of seat capacity dedicated to intermediate points, flight routes and linkages (through hubs), journey times, fares, flight origins (and onward destinations) and choice of airline.
Some of these determinants are themselves affected by such factors
as the operating characteristics of the international terminal, including:
(a) Operational time-frame (hours per day);
(b) Operational category;
(c) Operational characteristics including the navigation system,
runway, apron (standing area for aircraft) and handling capacity,
passenger terminal capacity, cargo handling capacity, fuel storage
and car parking;
(d) Facilitation processes (immigration, customs and quarantine);
(e) Special facilities (administration, emergency services and VIP
A satisfactory performance level of all these factors will only partially
determine the success of tourism activity; services and facilities that are
described in the following sections must match the passenger level.
(b) Domestic air services
Some countries have a poorly developed and serviced internal or
domestic air network, whereas others have a reasonable network of airports.
It is clear that if the full economic benefits of tourism are to be realized,
then a viable network of airports is necessary to accommodate growth and
distribute tourism activity. The private sector must be encouraged to set up
safe and reliable services to outer regions.
(c) Land transport systems and routes
It is necessary to develop an efficient land transport system to
complement a land-use strategy, in order that:
(a) Major circulation systems can be identified, planned and
provided with an adequate budget;
(b) Major centres and points of tourism can be linked;
(c) Road systems can be placed into appropriate hierarchical
(d) Routes can be used to open up new areas and properly service
emerging tourism resorts, while also providing access to natural
tourism attractions and circuits for tours.
It is not necessary to achieve a comprehensive road network to service
tourism; in fact, some routes may be left undeveloped to restrict and limit
visitor access. In a comprehensive land transport system, assessments need to be made of the availability to tourists of adequate private vehicles, buses, taxis, private rental vehicles, and any indigenous a?means of transporta?. These are matters best left to private enterprise and market forces, with licensing controls by the government.
(d) Water transport
From the point of view of tourism development, water-based transport
is an important item. It can be used to provide access to areas with no road
connections, restrict development at other destinations and, in some
instances, provide a unique and indigenous tourism experience. In the
development of the water transport component of the transport strategy, due
recognition should be given to the different types of vessels and their distinct
purposes, which include:
(a) Inter-transport (for residents, business people, government
officials, and tourists);
(b) Circuit transport (primarily by tourists), and access vessels to
transport tourists from the a?mainlanda? to offshore resorts;
(c) Day-trip, sightseeing and excursion boats;
(d) Short-duration cruise transport;
(e) Specialized boats for diving, snorkelling, offshore marine
pursuits, sport fishing, lagoon cruising and underwater viewing.
The nature of water-based transport is such that a specialized
government agency should be responsible for licensing operators.