ORE COMPETENCIES: LIFE SPAN CONSIDERATIONS

CORE COMPETENCIES: LIFE SPAN CONSIDERATIONS
NURS 3080 Pharmacology
Apply age specific principles to a specified client population receiving pharmacological therapies.
a? Discuss the influences of the patients age on the effects of drugs and drug responses.
a? Summarize the impact of age-related physiologic changes on the pharmacokinetic aspects of drug therapy.
a? Explain how these age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics influence various drug effects and drug responses across the life span.
a? Provide several examples of how age affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs.
Given:
Age has, of course, a significant impact on the effects of medications in a patient, especially for those at either end of the
age spectruma the elderly and pediatric patients. However, age-related changes are the more significant factors.

Pharmacokinetics are altered by organ immaturity in infants. Because of this, most drug references recommend pediatric dosages based on a?mg/kga? of body weight. However, formulas that involve the age, weight, and body surface area (BSA)
are also useful for calculating optimum dosages.

In elderly patients, significant physiologic changes affect all four phases of pharmacokinetics, and multiple disorders (and multiple physicians) can lead to further complexities in treatment, particularly polypharmacy.

In addition, because a fetus is exposed to many of the same substances as the mother, including drugs, it is important to
know and understand drug effects during gestational life. Breast-fed infants are also at risk for exposure to drugs consumed
by the mother.

This performance task focuses on life span considerations and addresses age-related changes impacting pharmacokinetics.

Case Study: Polypharmacy and the Elderly

R.M., a 77-year-old retired librarian, sees several physician specialists for a variety of health problems. She uses
pharmacy at a large discount store but also has prescriptions filled at a nearby pharmacy, which she uses when she does not feel like going into the larger store. Her medication list is as follows:

Thiazide diuretic, prescribed for peripheral edema
Potassium tablets, prescribed to prevent hypokalemia
Beta-blocker, prescribed for hypertension
Warfarin, taken every evening because of a history of deep vein thrombosis
Thyroid replacement hormone because of a history of hypothyroidism
Multivitamin tablet for seniors

Task: Write an essay (suggested length of 3-4 pages) in which you address the following topics from the case study:

A. Begin the paper with an introductory paragraph that briefly describes at least four major topic areas you are covering.

B. . What medications may cause problems for R.M. and explain why they may cause problems.

C. Explain what measures can be taken to reduce these problems.

R.M. visits the pharmacy to pick up some medications for a cold. She has chosen a popular over-the-counter decongestant
an antihistamine preparation, and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for her a?aches and pains.a?

D. Explain what advice you would give to R.M. about choosing the over-the-counter medications listed above.

E. . Use correct APA format, headings, and in-text and reference list citations throughout the paper.

F. Use a minimum of three (3) references, from professional, scholarly-based sources in the paper.



Note: When using outside sources to support ideas and elements in a paper or project, the submission MUST include APA formatted in-text citations with a corresponding reference list for any direct quotes or paraphrasing. It is not necessary to
list sources that were consulted if they have not been quoted or paraphrased
It is not necessary to list sources that were consulted if they have not been quoted or paraphrased in the text of the paper or project.

Note: No more than a combined total of 30% of a submission can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from outside sources, even if cited correctly. Here are some helpful APA resources:
owl/resource/560/01

REFERENCES:

Lilley, L., Collins S., Harrington, S., and Snyder, J. (2010). Pharmacology and the Nursing Process. 6th ed. Elsevier.
ISBN: 978-0-323-05544-4





A. Introduction of major topics
The paper does not provide descriptions of 4 topics. The paper provides acceptable descriptions of 4 topics. The paper provides precise descriptions of 4 or more topics.
B. What medications may cause problems for R.M. and explain why they may cause problems. The paper does not identify what medications may cause problems for R.M. and explain why they may cause problems. The paper adequately identifies what medications may cause problems for R.M. and explain why they may cause problems. The paper precisely identifies what medications may cause problems for R.M. and explain why they may cause problems.
C. Explain what measures can be taken to reduce these problems. The paper does not explain what measures can be taken to reduce these problems. The paper adequately explains what measures can be taken to reduce these problems. The paper precisely explains what measures can be taken to reduce these problems.
D. Explain what advice you would give to R.M. about choosing the over-the-counter medications listed above. The paper does not explain what advice you would give to R.M. about choosing the over-the-counter medications listed above. The paper adequately explains what advice you would give to R.M. about choosing the over-the-counter medications listed above. The paper precisely explains what advice you would give to R.M. about choosing the over-the-counter medications listed above.
E. Uses correct APA format. The paper does not conform to APA format, headings, and in-text and reference list. The paper uses APA format, headings, and in-text and reference list with minor errors. The paper uses APA format, headings, and in-text and reference list with no errors.
F. Uses outside references. The paper uses less than three (3) references, from professional, scholarly-based references. The paper uses three (3) references, from professional, scholarly-based references. The paper uses more than three (3) references, from multiple professional, scholarly-based references.
Total # of points 27 (21 (75%) is minimum passing score)