Ow can we prevent members of the public from being shot by the Police during high terrorism threat levels?

Examination of literature for the following topics:

Rules of engagement, policing and civil liberties, preventive and pre-emptive policing, protection of civilians and the use of force by the security forces. All connected to the rules of engagement.

Please focus on academically authoritative texts like academic books, journals, research reports, government publications.
A better idea is to use databases. These are available through the Library in paper and electronic (usually online) forms.
DO NOT use websites as sources only journal publications and books please.

The following texts to be examined and cited with footnote referencing:

Frank Kitson; Low intensity operations

Paul Wilkinson; Terrorism and the Liberal State

Lippmann, W. (2007), Public Opinion (Minneapolis, MN: Filiquarian Publishing, LLC).

Taylor, P. (2011), Talking to Terrorists, Face to Face with the Enemy (London: Harper Press).

Whittaker, D. (2002), Terrorism: Understanding the Global Threat (London: Pearson Education Limited).

Gardner, D. (2008), Risk: The Science and Politics of Fear (London: Virgin Books).

Hoffman, B. (2006), Inside Terrorism (New York, NY: Columbia University Press).

Journal Publications

(2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Philosophical Studies,
13:4, 517-541, DOI: 10.1080/09672550500321825

Fischhoff, B. and R.C. Silver (2011), i??What Should We Expect After the Next Attack?i??, American Psychologist , Vol. 66, No. 6, pp. 520i??531.

Howard, Michael A Long War?, Survival, 48:4, 7 14

Alastair Finlan (2013) The perils of special approaches to counterterrorism:
the shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes in 2005, Defense & Security Analysis, 29:3, 188-202, DOI:

The Contraction of Meaning: The Combined Effect of Communication, Emotions, and Materiality on Sensemaking in the Stockwell Shooting
Joep P. Cornelissen, Saku Mantere and Eero Vaara

Colville (2008) Organizing to counter terrorism: Sensemaking amidst dynamic complexity

The Shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes: New Border Politics?Author(s): Nick Vaughan-WilliamsSource: Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Apr.-June 2007), pp. 177-195

James Salt & M.L.R. Smith (2008) Reconciling Policing and Military Objectives:
Can Clausewitzian Theory Assist the Police Use of Force in the United Kingdom?, Democracy and Security, 4:3, 221-244, DOI: 10.1080/17419160802362724

Hier, Sean P. and Josh Greenberg. 2007. The Surveillance Studies Reader. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

BRIT. J. CRIMINOL. (2010) 50, 1060i??1076
Advance Access publication 20 July 2010 Crime Reporters, the Police and i??Law-and-Order Newsi??


Adam D.M. Svendsen (2010) Re? fashioning Risk: Comparing UK, US and Canadian Security and Intelligence Efforts against Terrorism, Defence Studies, 10:3, 307-335, DOI: 10.1080/14702436.2010.503677

Tony Travers (2006) Policing and public order, Local Government
Studies, 32:3, 341-356, DOI: 10.1080/03003930600693229

Denis Smith Guest Editor (2006) Editorial, Public Money & Management, 26:5, 271-273

Trevor Jones (2012) The politics of the police, Policing and Society: An
International Journal of Research and Policy, 22:4, 545-547, DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2012.657192

That is a small sample of surrounding the topic area. I would like the review to focus on the following:

Understand and critically analyse the background research

Select and source the information that is necessary to develop a context for your research

What is a literature review?

A literature review is a select analysis of existing research which is relevant to your topic, showing how it relates to your investigation. It explains and justifies how your investigation may help answer some of the questions or gaps in this area of research.

A literature review is not a straightforward summary of everything you have read on the topic and it is not a chronological description of what was discovered in your field.

A longer literature review may have headings to help group the relevant research into themes or topics. This gives a focus to your analysis, as you can group similar studies together and compare and contrast their approaches, any weaknesses or strengths in their methods, and their findings.

One common way to approach a literature review is to start out broad and then become more specific. Think of it as an inverted triangle. First briefly explain the broad issues related to your investigation; you doni??t need to write much about this, just demonstrate that you are aware of the breadth of your subject. Then narrow your focus to deal with the studies that overlap with your research. Finally, hone in on any research which is directly related to your specific investigation. Proportionally you spend most time discussing those studies which have most direct relevance to your research.