Ow did the relationship between individual and state change over the course of the twentieth century?

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You should begin with a short discussion (one or two paragraphs) on the relationship between the individual and the state in the period before 1789 (under feudalism) and after 1789, during the nineteenth century (classic liberal view). The body of your essay should then cover the entire period (WWI, interwar perioda including Bolshevism, Fascism, Nazisma and East and West Europe [Socialism and Social Democracy (Welfare State)] during the Cold War), not only up until 1989, but also even beyond (1990s/2000s). Finally, good essays will account for the fact that the relationship between the state and the individual was often very different depending on the race, sex, gender, ethnicity, or religion of a given individual.

(note: the following guidelines will not appear on the exam): Things you will want to consider: What was the status of individual rights during each period? Was state-individual relationship becoming more a?moderna? (how do you define a?moderna?). What sorts of responsibilities did the individual have to the state? What responsibilities did the state have to the individual? Finally, how did the state-individual relationship change for women? Was it different than for men? Under Nazism? Fascism? Soviet Communism? Liberalism? Social Democracy?

In terms of sources, you will certainly want to talk about Kovaly, but there is also Mussolini, Hitler, the Lenin, Stalin, Primo Levi, and so on. Additionally, you could refer to primary sources from earlier in the course, since a part of this question is cumulative, though the focus should be on the sources from the second half of the course (since the mid-term).