Ow do cultural differences in policing styles in Britain and America affect crime control?

An introduction: see the previous When to do Whatfor an indication of what is required in this section of your work; Literature Review/Contextualising chapters: giving historical background and reviewing the main literature, research and arguments within your area of enquiry. This chapter (or chapters) often highlights the key issues or themes you will address later in your dissertation and, perhaps, through your own primary research. Similarly it will demonstrate the importance and relevance of the issue under examination (See below); Chapters on your own research: these sections will vary greatly. If you are undertaking active primary research, they might include discussion of your methods (see also,  The Methods Chapter ) and a report on the outcomes of your research; Concluding chapters: discussing (as opposed to just describing) your research findings and then bringing the dissertation to a close. More information available in the handout provided. I would like research done via case studies, literature, interviews etc both quantitve and qualitative research what ever is possible.
Electronic Library, Emerald and Sage

Title: Arming a traditionally disarmed police: an examination of police use of CS gas in the UK
Author(s): Linda Tyler, Lisa King
Journal: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
ISSN: 1363-951X
Year: Sep 2000 Volume: 23 Issue: 3 Page: 390 400
DOI: 10.1108/13639510010343065
Publisher: MCB UP Ltd
Abstract: The introduction of police use of CS gas within the UK has prompted widespread criticism. This article begins with the background to the introduction of CS gas, including the rationale behind its use. This is followed by an elucidation of the concerns and problems ensuing from its use, namely danger to health, police use/misuse, its effectiveness as a deterrent to police assaults, and police accountability. Throughout the article a number of recent cases are discussed.

Title: Police violence in Canada and the USA: analysis and management
Author(s): James F. Hodgson
Journal: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
ISSN: 1363-951X
Year: Dec 2001 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Page: 520 551
DOI: 10.1108/EUM0000000006498
Publisher: MCB UP Ltd
Abstract: Focuses on contemporary law enforcement institutions, in Canadian and US cities, to illustrate the service limitations and public conflicts that are increasingly being generated into violent encounters by the failure to move beyond the authoritarian organizational operational model. The capacity of public policing institutions to provide effective, non-violent police services to meet the needs of the communities is determined by the nature of the police institutional and/or organizational model employed. This analysis assesses the appropriateness of current police training models, race relations training, non-violent conflict resolution training and all other police training that may be grounded and generated from a paramilitary authoritarian hierarchical composition. This applied approach discloses much needed systemic and policy reformation by considering a more expanded understanding of this prominent social agency, the actors and the interconnectedness with other institutions.

Title: Police as military: Indonesia s experience
Author(s): Adrianus Meliala
Journal: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
ISSN: 1363-951X
Year: Sep 2001 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Page: 420 432
DOI: 10.1108/EUM0000000005853
Publisher: MCB UP Ltd
Abstract: The Indonesian police (Polri) were unique in that they were once part of the military as well as being an extension of the Government. Since the police joined the military and executed a paramilitary policing style, Polri has been characterised by three problems: their terrible weakness as law enforcers, the poor quality of policing and an unhealthy police-public relationship. This article examines these problems and their history. It also reviews the present situation and offers some possible solutions for the future.

Title: The socio-political context of zero tolerance policing strategies
Author(s): Roger Hopkins Burke
Journal: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
ISSN: 1363-951X
Year: Dec 1998 Volume: 21 Issue: 4 Page: 666 682
DOI: 10.1108/13639519810241683
Publisher: MCB UP Ltd
Abstract: This paper commences with the recognition that so-called zero tolerance policing strategies have been implemented and sustained both in the USA and Britain in response to a very widespread public demand. It is argued that dismissing this support as part of a reactionary political backlash fails to address some very legitimate public concerns. Consequently, this paper considers the socio-political circumstances that have provided the conditions for this popular support in terms of the notion of post-modern politics, whereby political demands and subsequent strategies are introduced that appeal to a wide range of interest groups, and which cross over the traditional liberal/conservative divide. Examples are cited, from New York City in the USA, to various geographical locations in Britain, in order to support the argument that zero tolerance-style policing needs to be driven by the concerns of the particular community in order to receive widespread legitimacy
Title: Reading about  community (oriented) policing and police models
Author(s): Paul Ponsaers
Journal: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
ISSN: 1363-951X
Year: Dec 2001 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Page: 470 497
DOI: 10.1108/EUM0000000006496
Publisher: MCB UP Ltd
Abstract: Discusses the actual conceptions about policing used by social scientists. Police models are central entities of thoughts and ideas on policing, which include an observable internal coherence. Stresses that there are in fact only four central police models: the military-bureaucratic model; the lawful policing model; community-oriented policing (COP); and public-private divide policing. Precisely in articulating COP against its negative references, the essence becomes clearer. Concludes that each concrete police apparatus can be considered as a combination of police models. The democratization process can be endangered by the growing dominance of a public-private (divide) police model. That is the main reason why it is important to encourage the search for a more profound theoretical basis for policing the community.

Title: The status of community policing in American cities: Facilitators and impediments revisited
Author(s): Jihong Zhao, Nicholas P. Lovrich, Quint Thurman
Journal: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
ISSN: 1363-951X
Year: Mar 1999 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Page: 74 92
DOI: 10.1108/13639519910256893
Publisher: MCB UP Ltd
Abstract:  Community policing has become the watchword for organizational change among law enforcement agencies across the USA over the past several years. In particular, concerted efforts to internalize this new policing philosophy have intensified with the passage of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act in 1994, and since the strong endorsement of the community policing concept by the Clinton administration. Our analysis of data collected from a representative sample of 281 American police agencies in 1993 and again in 1996 permit a compelling examination of the community policing movement in this country over time. Our findings suggest that there has been a significant increase in community policing activities in recent years. Further, the level of interest in community policing training has intensified and impediments to the adoption of the community policing philosophy have become more easily identifiable. In addition, the results reported here also suggest that this change process has been quite dynamic, but the ultimate and widespread institutionalization of community policing still remains somewhat uncertain.

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