Ow effectively does Congress use its powers over foreign policy?

Dear writer,



Answering the essay question please make sure you will consider following issues:



What powers does Congress have? (ESPECIALLY over war)



Has Congress been reluctant to use its war powers?



Did Congressional authorization of the Iraq War in 2003 demonstrate anything important

regarding Congressional War Powers?



Is Congress in decline?



Please make you will use those two essential readings (I will upload them):



Ornstein, Norman J. and Thomas E. Mann (2006)  When Congress Checks Out , Foreign Affairs Vol. 85, No. 6: 67-82.



Howell, William G. and Jon C. Pevehouse (2007),  When Congress Stops Wars: Partisan Politics and Presidential Power , Foreign Affairs Vol. 86, No. 5: 95-107.



Also please use books from recommended list:



CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT:



Campbell, Colton C., et al. (eds) (2003), Congress and the Politics of Foreign Policy, Upper Saddle Rover, NJ: Prentice Hall.



Cushman, Charles (2009), Still Struggling: Congress and the Challenge of National Security Policymaking, London: Routledge.



DeLat, C. James and James M. Scott (2006),  Treaty-Making and Partisan Politics: Arms Control and the U.S. Senate, 1960-2001 , Foreign Policy Analysis Vol. 2, No. 2: 177-200.



Fabbrini, Sergio (2009), America and its Critics, Cambridge: Polity, chap 2.



Fisher, Louis (2004), Presidential War Power, 2nd Rev. ed. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas.



Gould, Lewis L. (2003), The Modern American Presidency, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.



Hamilton, Lee (2002), A Creative Tension: The Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress, Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.



Hersman, Rebecca K. C. (2000), Friends and Foes: How Congress and the President Really Make Foreign Policy, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.



Hess, Gary R. (2009), Presidential Decisions for War: Korea, Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, and Iraq, 2nd ed., Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.



Howell, William G. and Jon C. Pevehouse (2005),  Presidents, Congress, and the Use of Force , International Organization, Vol. 59, No. 1: 209-232.



Howell, William G. and Jon C. Pevehouse (2007), While Dangers Gather: Congressional Checks on Presidential War Powers, Princeton: Princeton University Press.



Jillson, Cal (2009), American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change, London: Routledge.



Johnson, Robert David (2005), Congress and the Cold War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



Lindsay, James (2003),  Deference and Defiance: The Shifting Rhythms of Executive-



Legislative Relations in Foreign Policy , Presidential Studies Quarterly Vol. 33, No. 3: 530-546.



Lindsay, James M. (1994),  Congress, Foreign Policy and the New Institutionalism , International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 2: 281-304.



Lindsay, James M. (1994), Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Policy, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.



Madison, James, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay (1987 [1788]), The Federalist Papers, London: Penguin, esp. nos. 24-28, 69 and 74.



Mann, Thomas E. and Norman Ornstein (2006), The Broken Branch, Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Meernik, James and Elizabeth Oldmixon (2008),  The President, the Senate, and the Costs of Internationalism , Foreign Policy Analysis Vol. 4, No. 2: 187 206.



Neustadt, Richard E. (1990), Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan, New York: Free Press.



Olson, William C. (1991),  The US Congress: an Independent Force in World Politics? , International Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 3: 547-563.



Schlesinger, Arthur J. (1972),  Congress and the Making of American Foreign Policy , Foreign Affairs, Vol. 51, No. 1: 78-113.



Tower, John G. (1981-1982),  Congress versus the President: The Formulation and Implementation of American Foreign Policy , Foreign Affairs, Vol. 60, No. 2: 229-246.



EXECUTIVE BRANCH BUREAUCRACIES:



Acheson, Dean (1971),  The Eclipse of the State Department , Foreign Affairs, Vol. 49, No. 2: 593-607.



Cohen, Eliot A. (2000),  Defending America in the 21st Century , Foreign Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 6: 40-56.



Eagleburger, Lawrence and Robert L. Berry (1996),  Dollars and Sense Diplomacy , Foreign Affairs Vol. 75, No. 4: 2-8.



Johnson, Loch and Karl F. Inderfurth (eds) (2003), Fateful Decisions: Inside the National Security Council, Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Rockman, Bert (1981),  America s Departments of State: Irregular and Regular Syndromes of Policy Making , American Political Science Review Vol. 75, No. 4: 911-927.



Sapolsky, Harvey M., Eugene Gholz and Allen Kaufman (1999),  Security Lessons from the Cold War , Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 4: 77-89.



Sorenson, Theodore (1987-88),  The President and the Secretary of State , Foreign Affairs, Vol. 66, No. 2: 231-248.



Stuart, Douglas T. (2003),  Ministry of Fear: The 1947 National Security Act in Historical and Institutional Context , International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 4, No. 3: 293-313.