Ow gender conceptions developed and changed during the period of Jacksonian America
This is what my professor wrote to me as a suggestion to what my topic should be: We have looked at questions of femininity. What if you discussed ways each of the two gender conceptions developed in response to changes in the other? Or how both changed through the period in response to some other factor (such as the rise of the factory, which would allow you to discuss both the working class and the middle class)?
The paper must focus on both working and middle classes during this time. It must also include the rise of the factory as one of the major factors influencing these gender conceptions. How these gender roles developed and the reasons that they changed during Jacksonian america.
Definition of the market revolution
causes and effects its impact on American Society
issues of labor from farm to factory How did this influence gender conceptions ?
( before the factory laborers identified themselves by their craft .. lead to a devalue and de-skilling of labor)
Women workers did it reinforce or challenge traditional gender roles?
What changes occured to traditional male roles in society?
We are supposed to use sources found on the making of america website in order to write our paper.
I have provided the website below:
Some of the works we have discussed which would be good to include would be :
(can be found online )
The Cult of True Womanhood Barbara Welter
Society, Politics and the Market Revolution Sean Wilentz
Market Sentiments Elizabeth White Nelson
Jacksonian America Edward Pessen
The human Tradition in Antebellium America Michael Morrison
What Hath God Wrought Howe
Throughout the semester we discussed a lot about American identity and the middle class.
This is what i have written so far. This doesnt necessarily have to be included in the paper but it may give you an idea of how i write.
When discussing issues of gender, it is important to point out there are varying definitions and ideas surrounding the term. Many people hear the word gender and automatically think simply a?malea? or a?female.a? Although this is a common misconception, the terms a?malea? and a?femalea? are actually categories of sex, not gender. The term a?sexa? refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. The word gender more appopriatly refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a society considers appropriate for both men and women. Characteristics of gender are based mainly on attributes that are considered either a?masculinea? or a?feminine.a? (cite) These attributes are greatly influenced by the religious, economic, cultural and political aspects that make up the given society. The ways in which these societies function and interact with one another is a key factor in establishing these roles. However, due to the fact that gender conception is a socially determined part of society, these roles are subject to change.
Gender conceptions during the time of Jacksonian America were mainly focused on the different social roles and duties of both men and women. These social roles were defined by the many transformations that took place during this time.
The market revolution had a great deal of influence on the ways in which Americans thought about their society and one another. It was not just an economic transformation but a combination of events that affected all aspects of American life. According to Sean Wilentz, author of Society, Politics and the Market Revolution: 1815-1848, the economic changes brought about by the market revolution caused a great shift in the social relationships of at this time. As the market economy expanded so did the factory system, transportation and communication processes. The introduction of the railroad made transporting materials faster and easier. These materials could then be dispersed amongst small town farmers, who began farming to sustain a large market, rather than their own households. As a result of this people were becoming a class of competitive, a?dependent Americans.a? The shift from small agriculture to larger mass producing crops is what Wilentz attributes to the decline of household and family values. People became more focused on ways to surpass their competitors in the growing industrial field and devoted less attention to passing on skills to maintaining a household or farm to their children. As a new industrious working class emerged gender roles began to change in order to meet the shifting needs of society.
By mid century the market revolution with its advancements in technology and capital had transformed America into an industrial economy
Charles sellers book The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America,1815-1846 further discusses the changes and events that took place during the era.
the issue of identity. When discussing the importance of male identity during this time such works as Michael Kaplanas, a?New York City Tavern Violence and the Creation of Middle Class Male Identitya? and Charles Briggsa, a?The Adventures of Harry Francoa? are
When determining the issues of female identity in Barbara Welteras, A Cult of True Womanhood ** . Welteras a?The Cult of True Womanhooda? focuses on the stereotypes facing women in the 1800as. Her a?True Womanhooda? is based on four categories: piety, purity, submissiveness and domesticity. These are the attributes that she considers to be the main foundation of what was considered womanly virtue in Jacksonian Ameica. Each of these categories were vital to shaping the ways in which American society viewed and thought about women. This ideal further helped to establish the
In the same sense that these attempted to explain identity in terms of gender, the works of transcendentalists such as William Ellery Channing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Cooper, and David L. Simpson explained identity through terms of educational progress.
Barbara Welteras a?The Cult of True Womanhooda? focuses on the stereotypes facing women in the 1800as. Welteras a?True Womanhooda? is based on four categories: piety, purity, submissiveness and domesticity. These are the attributes that she considers to be the main foundation of womanly virtue at this time. Each of these categories was vital to shaping the ways in which society viewed and further helped to establish the idea of the a?proper woman.a?
Women of all classes were expected to live up to the obligations set forth by these four categories. Those who did not conform to the idealized consensus of true womanhood were looked down upon and labeled a?fallen womena? within their communities. Any woman to reject or stray from this a?proper spherea? was considered a?tampering with societya? and a?undermininga? the very fundamentals of civilization. Along with her focused study of the expected roles of women, Welter also emphasizes the separate spheres of both men and women.
Historically, men have been known to be the bread winners of their families, with their familial obligations based on economic support. The manas sphere existed mainly outside of the home. Their duties were to work hard and provide for their families, while the womanas work revolved within the home. Examples of these duties can be found in Catherine Beecheras a?A Treatise on American Domestic Economy.a? In this Beecher clearly outlines the various obligations of proper domestic life and womanhood. These types of literary works were the result of the growing culture industry of the mid1800as. Womenas magazines played an essential role in linking the woman at home to the outside world. Through the distribution of magazines and advice manuals, the womanas sphere became a lead player in the economic market and growth of industrial capitalism. One of the prominent magazines was The Ladyas Book, created by Louis Godey and edited by Sarah Hale. Eliza