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In the book Violence (6-8), Gilligan draws an important distinction between pathos and tragedy. The former refers to natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, over which human beings often have no control; the latter refers to human action alone. For instance, a murder would be an instance of tragedy. Can you elaborate on this idea and explain why and how pathos differs from tragedy? Can you think of other examples of both pathos and tragedy?

In addition to discussing pathos and tragedy, Gilligan briefly talks about a third type of violence: morality plays. What does he mean by that, and how does this type of violence differ from both pathos and tragedy? Also, which of these two (i.e., pathos and tragedy) can a morality play be argued to be at times closer to? Why?