Re Black Afro Caribbean boys underachieving within the Education system that are born in the UK?

Are Black Afro Caribbean boys underachieving within the Education system that are born in the UK?

Chapter 1: Introduction This part of my dissertation work is to investigate reasons why children underachieve in education. Are black Afro Caribbean boys especially under achieving within the education system in the UK? I will research different schools in the United Kingdom. I aim to provide the reader with the understanding of why education systems differ and have an effect on black afro Caribbeanas boys learning. Research and define peopleas perception of underachieving. I will also research perception and acknowledgment of achieving and under achieving. How and where does the acknowledgement of achievement derive?
Do black afro Caribbean boys have the same opportunities or expectations to achieve?
Are black afro Caribbean boys affected by the lack of male role models?
Do teachers have low expectations of social groups such as looked after children, asylum seekers, single parented families and the disabled etc?

I further aim to define success and research equal opportunities, attainment expectations and encouragement to success. I will further include underachieving and unenthusiastic black afro caribbean boys that are mostly encouraged to participate in sports, dance or music, but never encouraged or exposed to positive professions such as a Politician or a Lawyer.

Chapter 2: Literature Review Although black boys start school aged 5 as enthusiastic and academically able as any other youngster, however by the age of 16 they are performing worse than any other group. Black boys are also more likely to be excluded than white students as they become adult males they are more likely to receive a custodial sentence than white males for the same crime. (bbc.co.uk 12th May 2008).
Secondary only no questionaire used.
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Re Black Afro Caribbean boys underachieving within the Education system that are born in the UK?

I further researched and examined available literature on the underachievement of black boys in education. The DFES (2006) stated that for many years, examination results for pupils of African-Caribbean heritage have fallen below their peers and a long way below national averages. The evidence showed that although African-Caribbean pupils begin well at KS1, by the end of KS2 progress dips considerably, and by KS4 only 30% of these pupils obtained good GCSE results. The Director of KANA Foundation, Brook (2006) and the BBC News (2006) stated that under achieving implies they can do better than they are currently doing.
According to the Education Guardian figures (2004), just 35.7% of Black Caribbean pupils in England scored at least five C grades at GSCE, compared with the National average of 51.9%. Black West-Indian males between 3-6 years old are doing as well as their white counterparts. Then between 7-11 years old the figures took a significant dip.
Similarly middle-class black children were the lowest attaining middle-class group, with 38% chance of achieving five high grades at GCSE a less than working class Indians (43%) and only a little better than working class whites (34%). Indeed a DFES spokesman (12th March 2007) said: a?The proportion of Black Caribbean, Black African and other black pupils achieving five or more A*-C grades at GCSE level and equivalent in 2004 has improved by more than 2.5% against the average improvements of 1.2%. Black girls, however, are still achieving better grades in GCSE and are doing as well as white girls at this level.
The Department of Education (2006) spokesman pointed out that the situation was improving and that the number of black and Indian boys gaining five or more good GCSE grades had risen by nearly 3 times during 2008.
The Birmingham study (1998) showed that African/Caribbean boys, in particular, start their schooling at broadly the same level, with the same attitude in terms of motivation and enthusiasm as their white peers, but during the course of their education they fall further and further behind. In 2007 for example roughly 70% of African/Caribbean pupils left school with less than 5 high grades at GCSE level or equivalent. This represents the lowest level of achievement for any ethnic group of school children.
Although black boys start school aged 5 as enthusiastic and academically able as any other youngster, however by the age of 16 they are performing worse than any other group. Black boys are also more likely to be excluded than white students as they become adult males they are more likely to receive a custodial sentence than white males for the same crime. (bbc.co.uk 12th May 2008).
Even though, not all black boys are underachieving in the UK and without seeming judgemental, maybe time permitting I could further research more into the community that they live in, parental guidance, finances, boundaries, discipline, and higher expectations and encouragement starting at home. However the teachers and the government should still be accountable for some childrenas failings.
Teachers often prejudge black boys, not giving them a chance as they expect them to underachieve, misbehave, disrupt classes and make no attempt to work hard which often mean they fail before they start. Black boys must be taught confidence and encouraged to achieve from the age of 5 to maintain confidence and learning at a high academic level. When they become teenagers they will know of the high importance of education and see potential for their professional success.
More so, Jane Elliott (1968) taught 8-9 year old children in an all white American town, she taught these children who had never been in contact with Black or Asian people and had obviously never been exposed to racism. She introduced racial equality by definition of the colour of their eyes e.g. blue eyes showed people would be superior, cleverer, quicker and more likely to succeed than those with brown eyes who by definition would be untrustworthy, stupid and lazy. Blue eyed children were constantly praised whereas brown eyed people were given constant negative comments.
When the situation was reversed a few days later subconsciously showed how much discrimination can be absorbed and learnt. The oppressor became the oppressed and visa versa. Sometimes encouragement and good role models play a large part.
Abbott (2007) states that it has been clear for some years that the British Education System is failing to give black boys the start in life that they and their parents are entitled to expect. She also states that the under achievements of black boys at school would benefit from more black and male teachers and mentors, there are currently 3,000 learning mentors in schools.
BBC News (2008), states that the achievement gap between 16 year old white pupils has doubled since the late 1980as compared to their Asian and African/Caribbean class mates. Furthermore, Black West-Indian boys born and educated in London fell below the expected national average between the ages of 7 and 11 years old in comparison to Black West-Indian girls who were also born and educated in London but are still achieving better grades in GCSE and are still currently doing as well as white girls at this level. Sunday school targets black boys that are under-achieving and aims to improve the academic performance of black children particularly black boys, from African and Caribbean families. Classes will be on a Sunday and will target children aged 8-19 years old. bbc.co.uk/news/education (2008).
Positive parental influence has a major affect also of the willingness to learn of the child from an early age. An exemplary male role model i.e. is key to the consistency of learning within the child especially among the males. Also constructive encouragement from both parents plays a vital part in the aspiration for knowledge.
Furthermore, the previous mayor of London Livingstone, K (2005) argued that the effect of years of failure to educate black children has been catastrophic for those young people and their communities. It will also be a disaster for London as a whole because black communities make up nearly 11% of Londonas population and an even larger proportion of the school age population. Furthermore he states we cannot afford to continue failing our black school children and at the same time he further comments on the critical role of more black teachers in raising attainment. K Livingstone further states a?The composition of the teaching staff, governors and other professionals dealing with the education of our children must change dramatically to fully reflect diversity of Londonas childrena?. uk (2005).
The Chairman of the Commissions for racial equality Trevor Philips has called for tougher action against black fathers, stating that access to their sons should be refused if they do not attend an show an interest at school parentas evenings. Mr Philips also told the BBCas Inside Out programme that many Black boys were in a culture where it was not cool to be clever and that they lacked self-esteem and good role models.

Methodology
Findings (secondary only)
Discussion
Teachers can often prejudge black boys, not giving them a chance as they expect them to underachieve, misbehave, disrupt classes and make no attempt to work hard, which means they fail before they start. This is supported by 60% of the respondents felt that black boys didnat receive equal opportunities in education. The respondents also felt black boys must be taught confidence and encouraged to achieve from the age of 5 to maintain confidence and learning at a high academic level. When they become teenagers they will know of the high importance of education and see potential for their professional success.
Jasper, L (Mayor of Londonas race adviser (2003) states that the problem was largely that white teachers feel intimidated by black teenagers thus affecting their ability and confidence