Riminology a Compare and contrast two methods of policing

Lecture recommended readings:

Kirby, S. (2013) Effective Policing: Implementation in theory and practice, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan

Weisburd, D., Telup, C.W., Hinkle, J.C., and Eck, J. (2010) Is problem oriented policing effective in reducing crime and disorder? Findings from a Campbell Systematic Review, Criminology & Public Policy, 9(1), 139-172

Willis, J.J., Mastrofski, S.D. and Weirdburd, D. (2004) Compstat and bureaucracy: A case study of challenges and opportunities for change, Justice Quarterly, 21(3), 463-496

Policing: Key Readings a Tim Newburn 2004
a? C Floor Red Zone RUP7

About the proper use of policing a?modelsa? a RenA© LA©vy, Champ PA©nal 2012

Factoring Policing Models a Allan Y. Jiao, Policing: An International Journal 1997

Measuring organised crime-related harms: exploring five policing methods a Natasha Tusikov, Crime Law and Social Change 2012

Reading about a?community (orientated) policinga? and police models a Paul Ponsaers, Policing: An International Journal 2001

Lecture slide notes:

Why study policing?
a? Early 1960s labelling theory a criminal justice agencies a?problematica
a? 1970s observation on internal life of the police and fact policing becoming more of a political issue
a? Interest in how policing fits into wider aspect of social control

a? Middle ages (600-1350) no police but system compensation
a? 18th century all towns were required by law to establish a watch a everyone had to take turns to patrol and maintain order
a? Led to professional watchmen
a? 1829 a concern in the rise of crime and inconsistency of response a Sir Robert Peel debated in parliament and Metropolitan Police Act created 17 police divisions in London
a? Counties and Boroughs Police Act 1856 required the rest of the country to establish police forces

a? The terms a?policea and a?policinga are not synonymous
a? The a?policea are one aspect of the more general concept of social order (Innes, 2003) a other aspects include the family, religion, employment etc
a? Array of organisations involved in policing is bewildering (Crawford, 2003)

Evidence to suggest early 1960s private security industry (guarding, investigating, equipment) exceeded police (Jones and Newburn, 1998)
a? The demand created a gap in relation police services (Morgan and Newburn, 1997)
a? Growing privatisation of urban space e.g. 4 million CCTV cameras in Britain (Norris et al., 2004)
a? Direct privatisation/contracting out of public functions e.g. prisoner transit, court security (Criminal Justice Act, 1991)
a? New Public Auxiliaries e.g. 24 thousand PCSOas by 2008 (Police Reform Act, 2002)
a? Governance is now a critical issue

a? Discretion is inevitable as breaches of law outstrip police capacity to process so priorities inevitable. Also discretion needed to deal with unpredictable situations.
a? Individual, cultural and organisational explanations for discretion which increases as you move down the hierarchy (Wilson, 1968)
a? Leads to unintended consequences i.e. disproportionate use of police powers against minority groups

Second lecture slide notes:
a? Five different models of policing: professional (traditional), community, intelligence led, zero tolerance, problem oriented

Professional (traditional) model:
a? A reactive approach, based on a strict hierarchical command and control system
a? Positive a easy to implement; citizens at the centre of the process; consistent with organisational culture
a? Negative a slow to respond to political/citizen led priorities; fail to show value for money

Policing environment changed:
a? Widening remit
a? Changing face of the customer a tailored solutions
a? Changing face of the physical environment
a? Changing demand profile
a? Changing patterns of crime

Positives a efficiency & effectiveness, different skills (specialists), public satisfaction