Riminology / (Book) Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction,(4th ed.) by Prentice Hall

Book Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction,(4th ed.) by Prentice Hall

Criminology Today, Chapter 15

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Name:
Lesson 8 Assignment
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Instructions
You will write one essay for this assignment. Your essay on the subject should contain elements from the subject that identify your knowledge of the subject. Essays should include definitions of the subjects, examples that display to the instructor your knowledge of the subject by your association and logic by use of the examples. Case studies and reference material also improve assessment regarding what you have learned.

Essay: Compare and contrast the social problems and social responsibility approach to crime. Explain what is meant by social policy. What is the impact on crime from the two approaches? Describe what you believe to be a good social policy on crime and how we can attain it.

Riminology / (Book) Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction,(4th ed.) by Prentice Hall

Instructions
Write one essay for this assignment. Your essay should be a minimum of 3 pages in length. Your essay on the subject should contain elements from the subject that identify your knowledge of the subject. Essays should include definitions of the subjects, examples that display to the instructor your knowledge of the subject by your association and logic by use of the examples. Case studies and reference material also improve assessment regarding what you have learned.

Chapters 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 describe in some detail the elements of various crimes. They include crimes against persons in Chapter 10, property crimes in Chapter 11, white collar crime in chapter 12, alcohol and drugs in chapter 13, and technology and crime in chapter 14.
Your assignment for lesson four is to select one of the topics from one of the five chapters and write a essay. (25 points)

Your essay should include the following:

1. Data that suggests the enormity of the crimes written about. In other words, How big a problem is the crime in our country?Some specific data is required.

2. From your reading of the textbook and review of the literature, what seems to be the primary cause of the crime you are writing on?

3. What case can you make regarding the crime you are writing on and its relationships to theory we studied in lesson three? This will require you to review the subjects you have written on in lesson three and state why you think the theory could apply to the type of crime you are writing on.

4. What are the social policy implications of the crime you are writing on? In other words, what has the country been doing to battle this crime, and does it make sense in terms of how we are spending the money to combat this crime?

5. In summary, do you think our public policy (how we are battling this crime) on this crime is adequate and rational?

Thank you!

Oh the essay should not be writen to complicated, because the teacher knows that i have some spelling errors. Since i just moved her from germany.

Riminology / (Book) Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction,(4th ed.) by Prentice Hall

Required Reading Schmalleger, F. (2005). Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction, (4th ed.) Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131702106
Chapters 7 Sociological Theories I: Social Structure

Write one element of social structure theory and why it is different from Social Process theories. The essay should include a criminological example of the differences. It should compare and contrast elements of each using examples to better establish your understanding and learning of the subject. The use of a criminal case to support evidence of a theory would be a good method as well.

I dont know if it is important but the Teacher wrote this –

Instructional Notes

Chapter 7
Social disorganization or ecological theories are associated with the Chicago School of criminology. Robert Park and Ernest Burgess viewed cities in terms of concentric zones, with Zone II (surrounding the city center) seen as the zone of transition. Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay applied concentric zone theory to crime and found that rates of offending remained fairly constant within the zone of transition despite the arrival of various new immigrant groups. The most important contribution of the ecological school to criminology is its claim that the community has a major influence on human behavior. Recently, the emergence of environmental criminology or the criminology of place has revived ecological approaches. The broken-windows thesis holds that physical deterioration in an area leads to increased concerns for personal safety among area residents and to higher crime rates in that area. The concept of defensible space is used by the criminology of place as a mechanism for reducing the risk of crime.

Strain theories see delinquency as adaptive behavior committed in response to problems involving frustrating and undesirable social environments. Classic strain theory was developed by Robert K. Merton, who developed the concept of anomie as a disjunction between socially approved means to success and legitimate goals. He outlined five modes of adaptation, or combinations of goals and means, and suggested that innovation was the mode most likely to be associated with crime. Stephen Messner and Richard Rosenfeld developed a contemporary version of Mertons theory, based on the concept of relative deprivation, the economic and social gap between rich and poor living in close proximity to one another. General strain theory, developed by Robert Agnew, reformulated strain theory and suggested that delinquency is a coping mechanism that helps adolescents deal with socioemotional problems generated by negative social reactions.

Culture conflict or cultural deviance theory suggests that crime results from a clash of values between differently socialized groups over what is acceptable or proper behavior. Thorsten Sellin suggests that conduct norms are acquired early in life through childhood socialization. Primary conflict occurs when there is a fundamental clash of cultures, while secondary conflict occurs when smaller cultures within the primary one clash. Subcultural theory emphasizes the contribution to crime made by variously socialized cultural groups within a primary culture. Walter Miller identified focal concerns or key values of delinquent subcultures which encourage delinquent behavior. On the other hand, Gresham Sykes and David Matza suggest that offenders use techniques of neutralization to negate the norms and values of the larger society and overcome feelings of guilt at committing criminal acts. Franco Ferracuti and Marvin Wolfgang postulated the existence of violent subcultures, which are built around values that support and encourage violence. Differential opportunity theory, developed by Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, combines elements of subcultural and strain theories to suggest that delinquency may result from the availability of illegitimate opportunities for success combined with the effective replacement of the norms of the primary culture with expedient subcultural rules. Albert Cohen also combined elements of strain theory and the subcultural perspective in his theory of reaction formation, which states that juveniles who are held accountable to middle-class norms and who cannot achieve these norms may reject middle-class goals and turn to delinquency instead.

The gangs studied by early researchers were involved primarily in petty theft, vandalism, and turf battles; modern gangs are involved in more serious and violent crimes and drug dealing. However, recent researchers draw a distinction between juvenile delinquency and gang-related violence, suggesting that they are ecologically distinct community problems.

Social structure theories have influenced social policy, through programs such as the Chicago Area Project, Mobilization for Youth, and the War on Poverty. The social structural perspective is closely associated with the social problems approach and negates the claims of the social responsibility perspective. The author discusses in this chapter a number of critiques of each type of social structure theory.