Round water contamination issue due to the use of septic tanks in Monroe County Florida (Florida Keys)

The area of interest in this paper is Florida Keys which covers the entire Monroe County. In the Keys, the groundwater and nearshore surface are closely connected. Untreated or poorly treated sewage is a growing issue over the Keys due to the use of septic tank as onsite treatment systems. Unfortunately, such systems cannot sufficiently work where the range of the subsurface soils is poor and the depth of the vadose zone is too shallow. Wastewater from septic tank infiltrates through the surrounding media and ultimately pollutes the groundwater. The polluted groundwater seeps into nearshore marine water and introduces excessive nutrients and harmful bacteria.

The paper shall describe in general the components(picture/diagram) and functionality of the septic tank. Same literature review or jurnals are need it to demonstare why the septic tanks are not suitable for soils similar of Florida Keys. Also the failure of the septic tank shall be described to mention underdesign, improper installation and poorely maintenance. One of the major concerns is the groundwater contamination. In order to furher pollute the water, the EPA mandated the entire Florida Keys to be converted the tratment of the the munucipal waste water with a system of sewer lines and wasrwe water treatment plans.